Shorea platyclados (Dark Red Meranti) is a commercially important timber tree species in Southeast Asia. However, its stocks have dramatically declined due, inter alia, to excessive logging, insufficient natural regeneration and a slow recovery rate. Thus, there is a need to promote enrichment planting and develop effective technique to support its rehabilitation and improve timber production through implementation of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) and Genomic Selection (GS). To assist such efforts, plant materials were collected from a half-sib progeny population in Sari Bumi Kusuma forest concession, Kalimantan, Indonesia. Using 5900 markers in sequences obtained from 356 individuals, we detected high linkage disequilibrium (LD) extending up to >145 kb, suggesting that associations between phenotypic traits and markers in LD can be more easily and feasibly detected with GWAS than with analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). However, the detection power of GWAS seems low, since few single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to any focal traits were detected with a stringent false discovery rate, indicating that the species’ phenotypic traits are mostly under polygenic quantitative control. Furthermore, Machine Learning provided higher prediction accuracies than Bayesian methods. We also found that stem diameter, branch diameter ratio and wood density were more predictable than height, clear bole, branch angle and wood stiffness traits. Our study suggests that GS has potential for improving the productivity and quality of S. platyclados, and our genomic heritability estimates may improve the selection of traits to target in future breeding of this species.