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      The imbalance of Th1/Th2 triggers an inflammatory response in chicken spleens after ammonia exposure


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          Ammonia is a hazardous environmental pollutant that can be harmful to animal health. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of ammonia exposure on broiler chicken spleens. We randomly divided one hundred twenty 1-day-old broiler chickens into 3 groups and raised them with exposure to different ammonia concentrations (low, middle, and high); at 42 D of age, the chicken spleens were extracted. We observed histopathologic changes in spleen tissues by microscopy and measured the expression of Th1/Th2 secreted cytokines (interleukin [ IL]-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-γ [ IFN - γ], tumor necrosis factor-α) by RT-PCR. We also measured the expression of nuclear receptor-κB ( NF- κ B) pathway–related genes (cyclooxygenase-2 [ COX-2], nitric oxide synthase [ iNOS], and prostaglandin synthetase [ PGE]) in spleens by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Histopathologic observations indicated that the spleen tissues were seriously injured in the high ammonia concentration group. There was abnormal cytokine expression, including increased IL-4, IL-6, and IFN-γ and decreased IL-2, which indicated an imbalance in the Th1/Th2 response. The proinflammatory factors such as NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS, and PGE were upregulated in the high ammonia group. In conclusion, this study illustrated that ammonia exposure led to a Th1/Th2 immune imbalance and triggered the NF-κB pathway, causing inflammatory damage to the spleen.

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          Most cited references33

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          Inflammation and cancer: advances and new agents.

          Tumour-promoting inflammation is considered one of the enabling characteristics of cancer development. Chronic inflammatory disease increases the risk of some cancers, and strong epidemiological evidence exists that NSAIDs, particularly aspirin, are powerful chemopreventive agents. Tumour microenvironments contain many different inflammatory cells and mediators; targeting these factors in genetic, transplantable and inducible murine models of cancer substantially reduces the development, growth and spread of disease. Thus, this complex network of inflammation offers targets for prevention and treatment of malignant disease. Much potential exists in this area for novel cancer prevention and treatment strategies, although clinical research to support targeting of cancer-related inflammation and innate immunity in patients with advanced-stage cancer remains in its infancy. Following the initial successes of immunotherapies that modulate the adaptive immune system, we assert that inflammation and innate immunity are important targets in patients with cancer on the basis of extensive preclinical and epidemiological data. The adaptive immune response is heavily dependent on innate immunity, therefore, inhibiting some of the tumour-promoting immunosuppressive actions of the innate immune system might enhance the potential of immunotherapies that activate a nascent antitumour response.
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            NF-κB: a key role in inflammatory diseases

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              Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg cytokine imbalance in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients: Correlation with disease activity.

              Imbalance of T-helper-cell (TH) subsets (TH1/TH2/TH17) and regulatory T-cells (Tregs) is suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therefore, we evaluated their cytokine secretion profile in SLE patients and their possible association with disease activity. Sixty SLE patients, 24 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and 24 healthy volunteers were included in this study. Demographic, clinical, disease activity and serological data were prospectively assessed. Plasma cytokines levels of TH1 (IL-12, IFN-γ), TH2 (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10), TH17 (IL-17, IL-23) and Treg (IL-10 and TGF-β) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). SLE patients were found to have significantly higher levels of IL-17 (p<0.001), IL-6 (p<0.01), IL-12 (p<0.001) and IL-10 (p<0.05) but comparable levels of IL-23 and IL-4 and slight reduction (but statistically insignificant) of TGF-β levels compared to controls. IL-6, IL-10 and IL-17 were significantly increased (p<0.05) with disease activity. The RA group exhibited significantly higher levels of plasma IL-4 (p<0.01), IL-6 (p<0.05), IL-17 (p<0.001), IL-23 (p<0.01) and TGF-β (p<0.5) and lower IFN-γ (p<0.001) and IL-10 (p<0.01) than those of healthy subjects. Our study showed a distinct profile of cytokine imbalance in SLE patients. Reduction in IFN-γ (TH1) and TGF-β1 (Treg) with the elevation in IL-6 and IL-17 (TH17) could imply skewing of T-cells toward TH17 cells. Breaking TH17/Treg balance in peripheral blood may play an important role in the development of SLE and could be responsible for an increased pro-inflammatory response especially in the active form of the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Poult Sci
                Poult Sci
                Poultry Science
                12 June 2020
                August 2020
                12 June 2020
                : 99
                : 8
                : 3817-3822
                []Department of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, P. R. China
                []Department of Veterinary and Husbandry, Liao ning Agricultural Technical College, Ying kou, Liao ning, 115009, China
                []Key Laboratory of the Provincial Education Department of Heilongjiang for Common Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, P. R. China
                Author notes
                © 2020 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of Poultry Science Association Inc.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                : 11 November 2019
                : 22 April 2020
                Immunology, Health and Disease

                ammonia,chicken spleen,th1/th2 immune balance,inflammation


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