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      Is Scheduled Intravenous Acetaminophen Effective in the Pain Management Protocol of Geriatric Hip Fractures?

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Hip fractures have significant effects on the geriatric population and the health care system. Prior studies have demonstrated both the safety of intravenous (IV) acetaminophen and its efficacy in decreasing perioperative narcotic consumption. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of scheduled IV acetaminophen for perioperative pain control on length of hospital stay, pain level, narcotic use, rate of missed physical therapy (PT) sessions, adverse effects, and discharge disposition in geriatric patients with hip fractures.

          Methods:

          A retrospective review was performed of all patients 65 years and older admitted to a level I trauma center, who received operative treatment for a hip fracture over a 2-year period. Demographic data, in-hospital variables, and outcome measures were analyzed. Three hundred thirty-six consecutive fractures in 332 patients met inclusion criteria. These patients were divided into 2 cohorts. Group 1 (169 fractures) consisted of patients treated before the initiation of a standardized IV acetaminophen perioperative pain control protocol, and group 2 (167 fractures) consisted of those treated after the protocol was initiated.

          Results:

          Group 2 had a statistically significant shorter mean length of hospital stay (4.4 vs 3.8 days), lower mean pain score (4.2 vs 2.8), lower mean narcotic usage (41.3 vs 28.3 mg), lower rate of PT sessions missed (21.8% vs 10.4%), and higher likelihood of discharge home (7% vs 19%; P ≤ .001). Use of IV acetaminophen was also consistently and independently predictive of the same variables ( P < .01).

          Conclusion:

          The utilization of scheduled IV acetaminophen as part of a standardized pain management protocol for geriatric hip fractures resulted in shortened length of hospital stay, decreased pain levels and narcotic use, fewer missed PT sessions, and higher rate of discharge to home.

          Level of Evidence:

          Therapeutic level III.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 40

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          Fracture and dislocation classification compendium - 2007: Orthopaedic Trauma Association classification, database and outcomes committee.

          The purpose of this new classification compendium is to republish the Orthopaedic Trauma Association's (OTA) classification. The OTA classification was originally published in a compendium of the Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma in 1996. It adopted The Comprehensive Classification of the Long Bones developed by Müller and colleagues and classified the remaining bones. In this compendium, the introductory chapter reviews new scientific information about classifying fractures that has been published in the last 11 years. The classification is presented in a revised format that is easier to follow. The OTA and AO classification will now have a unified alpha-numeric code eliminating the differences that have existed between the 2 codes. The code was significantly revised for the clavicle and scapula, foot and hand, and patella. Dislocations have been expanded on an anatomic basis and for most joints will be coded separately. This publication should stimulate new developments and interest in a unified language to code and classify fractures. Further improvements in classification will result in better patient care and clinical research.
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            Delirium is independently associated with poor functional recovery after hip fracture.

            To evaluate the role of delirium in the natural history of functional recovery after hip fracture surgery, independent of prefracture status. Prospective cohort study. Orthopedic surgery service at a large academic tertiary hospital, with follow-up extending into rehabilitation hospitals, nursing homes, and the community. One hundred twenty-six consenting subjects older than 65 years (mean age 79 +/- 8 years, 79% women) admitted emergently for surgical repair of hip fracture. Detailed assessment at enrollment to ascertain prefracture status through interviews with the patient and designated proxy and review of the medical record. Interviews included administration of standardized instruments (Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Scale, Blessed Dementia Rating Scale, Delirium Symptom Interview) and assessment of ambulation, and prefracture living situation. Medical comorbidity, the nature of the hip fracture, and the surgical repair were obtained from the medical record. All subjects underwent daily interviews for the duration of the hospitalization, including the Mini-Mental State Examination and Delirium Symptom Interview, and delirium was diagnosed using the Confusion Assessment Methods algorithm. Patients and proxies were recontacted 1 and 6 months after fracture, and underwent interviews similar to those at enrollment to determine death, persistent delirium, decline in ADL function, decline in ambulation, or new nursing home placement. Delirium occurred in 52/126 (41%) of patients, and persisted in 20/52 (39%) at hospital discharge, 15/52 (32%) at 1 month, and 3/52 (6%) at 6 months. Patients aged 80 years or older, and those with prefracture cognitive impairment, ADL functional impairment, and high medical comorbidity were more likely to develop delirium. However, after adjusting for these factors, delirium was still significantly associated with outcomes indicative of poor functional recovery 1 month after hip fracture: ADL decline (odds ratio (OR) = 2.6; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.1- 6.1), decline in ambulation (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.03-6.5), and death or new nursing home placement (OR = 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-8.4). Patients whose delirium persisted at 1 month had worse outcomes than those whose delirium had resolved. Delirium is common, persistent, and independently associated with poor functional recovery 1 month after hip fracture even after adjusting for prefracture frailty. Further research is necessary to identify the mechanisms by which delirium contributes to poor functional recovery, and to determine whether interventions designed to prevent or reduce delirium can improve recovery after hip fracture.
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              Efficacy and safety of single and repeated administration of 1 gram intravenous acetaminophen injection (paracetamol) for pain management after major orthopedic surgery.

              Intravenous acetaminophen injection (paracetamol) is marketed in Europe for the management of acute pain. A repeated-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-parallel group study was performed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of intravenous acetaminophen as compared with its prodrug (propacetamol) and placebo. Propacetamol has been available in many European countries for more than 20 yr. After orthopedic surgery, patients reporting moderate to severe pain received either 1 g intravenous acetaminophen, 2 g propacetamol, or placebo at 6-h intervals over 24 h. Patients were allowed "rescue" intravenous patient-controlled analgesia morphine. Pain intensity, pain relief, and morphine use were measured at selected intervals. Safety was monitored through adverse event reporting, clinical examination, and laboratory testing. One hundred fifty-one patients (intravenous acetaminophen: 49; propacetamol: 50; placebo: 52) received at least one dose of study medication. The intravenous acetaminophen and propacetamol groups differed significantly from the placebo group regarding pain relief from 15 min to 6 h (P < 0.05) and median time to morphine rescue (intravenous acetaminophen: 3 h; propacetamol: 2.6 h; placebo: 0.8 h). Intravenous acetaminophen and propacetamol significantly reduced morphine consumption over the 24-h period: The total morphine doses received over 24 h were 38.3 +/- 35.1 mg for intravenous acetaminophen, 40.8 +/- 30.2 mg for propacetamol, and 57. 4 +/- 52.3 mg for placebo, corresponding to decreases of -33% (19 mg) and -29% (17 mg) for intravenous acetaminophen and propacetamol, respectively. Drug-related adverse events were reported in 8.2%, 50% (most of them local), and 17.3% of patients treated with intravenous acetaminophen, propacetamol, and placebo, respectively. Intravenous acetaminophen, 1 g, administered over a 24-h period in patients with moderate to severe pain after orthopedic surgery provided rapid and effective analgesia and was well tolerated.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil
                Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil
                GOS
                spgos
                Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
                SAGE Publications (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA )
                2151-4585
                2151-4593
                September 2015
                September 2015
                1 September 2016
                : 6
                : 3
                : 202-208
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Grand Rapids Medical Education Partners, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Grand Rapids, MI, USA
                [2 ]Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Grand Rapids, MI, USA
                [3 ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
                [4 ]Orthopaedic Associates of Michigan, Grand Rapids, MI, USA
                Author notes
                Alexander J. Bollinger, Grand Rapids Medical Education Partners, 200 Jefferson Ave SE, Suite 305, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA. Email: alex.bollinger@ 123456grmep.com
                Article
                10.1177_2151458515588560
                10.1177/2151458515588560
                4536513
                26328237
                © The Author(s) 2015
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