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      Perimembrane Localization of the Estrogen Receptor α Protein in Neuronal Processes of Cultured Hippocampal Neurons

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          There is clear evidence of rapid, nongenomic responses to estrogen in a variety of neuronal model systems. To address the question of whether some of these rapid estrogen signals might be transduced by the classical estrogen receptor (ER) α or a closely related protein in nontransformed neurons, we undertook the present study using isolated fetal rat hippocampal neurons. Several antibodies developed to detect ERα were tested in this system and showed positive membrane staining in nonpermeabilized neurons. MC-20, an affinity purified anti-ERα, rabbit polyclonal IgG antibody which does not recognize ERβ was selected to carry out the majority of the experiments. When permeabilized, the hippocampal neurons exhibited low levels of nuclear staining for ERα, but abundant labeling for ERα throughout the entire cell including the neurites. In addition to traditional immunocytochemistry controls, incubation of neurons for 24 h in the presence of 10 µ M antisense oligonucleotide directed against the translation start site of ERα reduced ERα immunoreactivity throughout the neurons providing further evidence that the immunostaining was specific for ERα. Confocal and conventional microscopy demonstrated that the antigen was predominately extranuclear and localization of ERα in the neurites suggests that the receptor is in close proximity to the plasma membrane. This localization is consistent with a role for ERα as a transducer of rapid, nongenomic estrogen responses in hippocampal neurons.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Cloning of a novel receptor expressed in rat prostate and ovary.

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            17-beta estradiol protects neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death in vitro.

             T Trapp,  M Widmann,  C Behl (1995)
            The potential antioxidant activity of 17-beta estradiol and other steroid hormones in neuronal cells was investigated by studying oxidative stress-induced cell death caused by the neurotoxins amyloid beta protein, hydrogen peroxide and glutamate in the clonal mouse hippocampal cell line HT22. Preincubation of the cells with 10(-5) M 17-beta estradiol prior to addition of the neurotoxins prevented oxidative stress-induced cell damage and ultimately cell death, as detected with cell viability (MTT) and cell lysis (trypan blue exclusion/cell counting; propidium iodide staining) assays. At the DNA level, 17-beta estradiol blocked the DNA degradation caused by glutamate. Other steroid hormones, such as progesterone, aldosterone, corticosterone and the steroid precursor cholesterol, did not protect the cells. The neuronal protection afforded by 17-beta estradiol was estrogen receptor-independent. These data demonstrate a potent neuroprotective activity of the antioxidant 17-beta estradiol, which may have implications for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
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              Cell Membrane and Nuclear Estrogen Receptors (ERs) Originate from a Single Transcript: Studies of ER  and ER  Expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

               M Razandi (1999)

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                January 2000
                14 January 2000
                : 71
                : 1
                : 34-42
                Departments of aPharmacology and Toxicology, and bHuman Biological Chemistry and Genetics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Tex., and cDivision of Space Life Sciences, Universities Space Research Association, Houston, Tex., USA
                54518 Neuroendocrinology 2000;71:34–42
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 39, Pages: 9
                Gonadotropins and Gonadal Steroids


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