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      A novel vaccine for cervical cancer: quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16 and 18) recombinant vaccine (Gardasil ®)

      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management

      Dove Medical Press

      Gardasil, HPV, prophylactic vaccine, cervical disease

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          Abstract

          Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and remains a public health problem worldwide. There is strong evidence that HPV causes cervical, vulva and vaginal cancers, genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. The current treatments for HPV-induced infections are ineffective and recurrence is common-place. Therefore, to reduce the burden of HPV-induced infections, several studies have investigated the effi cacy of different prophylactic vaccines in clinical human trials directed against HPV types 6, 11, 16, or 18. Notably, these HPV types contribute to a signifi cant proportion of disease worldwide. This review will focus on the published results of Merck & Co’s prophylactic quadrivalent recombinant vaccine targeting HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (referred to as Gardasil ®). Data from the Phase III trial demonstrated that Gardasil was 100% effi cacious in preventing precancerous lesions of the cervix, vulva, and vagina and effective against genital warts. Due to the success of these human clinical trials, the FDA approved the registration of Gardasil on the 8 June 2006. In addition, since Gardasil has been effi cacious for 5 years post vaccination, the longest evaluation of an HPV vaccine, it is expected to reduce the incidence of these type specifi c HPV-induced diseases in the future.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Sustained efficacy up to 4.5 years of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine against human papillomavirus types 16 and 18: follow-up from a randomised control trial.

          Effective vaccination against HPV 16 and HPV 18 to prevent cervical cancer will require a high level of sustained protection against infection and precancerous lesions. Our aim was to assess the long-term efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of a bivalent HPV-16/18 L1 virus-like particle AS04 vaccine against incident and persistent infection with HPV 16 and HPV 18 and their associated cytological and histological outcomes. We did a follow-up study of our multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial reported in 2004. We included women who originally received all three doses of bivalent HPV-16/18 virus-like particle AS04 vaccine (0.5 mL; n=393) or placebo (n=383). We assessed HPV DNA, using cervical samples, and did yearly cervical cytology assessments. We also studied the long-term immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine. More than 98% seropositivity was maintained for HPV-16/18 antibodies during the extended follow-up phase. We noted significant vaccine efficacy against HPV-16 and HPV-18 endpoints: incident infection, 96.9% (95% CI 81.3-99.9); persistent infection: 6 month definition, 94.3 (63.2-99.9); 12 month definition, 100% (33.6-100). In a combined analysis of the initial efficacy and extended follow-up studies, vaccine efficacy of 100% (42.4-100) against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions associated with vaccine types. We noted broad protection against cytohistological outcomes beyond that anticipated for HPV 16/18 and protection against incident infection with HPV 45 and HPV 31. The vaccine has a good long-term safety profile. Up to 4.5 years, the HPV-16/18 L1 virus-like particle AS04 vaccine is highly immunogenic and safe, and induces a high degree of protection against HPV-16/18 infection and associated cervical lesions. There is also evidence of cross protection.
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            Prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine in young women: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre phase II efficacy trial.

            A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled phase II study was done to assess the efficacy of a prophylactic quadrivalent vaccine targeting the human papillomavirus (HPV) types associated with 70% of cervical cancers (types 16 and 18) and with 90% of genital warts (types 6 and 11). 277 young women (mean age 20.2 years [SD 1.7]) were randomly assigned to quadrivalent HPV (20 microg type 6, 40 microg type 11, 40 microg type 16, and 20 microg type 18) L1 virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccine and 275 (mean age 20.0 years [1.7]) to one of two placebo preparations at day 1, month 2, and month 6. For 36 months, participants underwent regular gynaecological examinations, cervicovaginal sampling for HPV DNA, testing for serum antibodies to HPV, and Pap testing. The primary endpoint was the combined incidence of infection with HPV 6, 11, 16, or 18, or cervical or external genital disease (ie, persistent HPV infection, HPV detection at the last recorded visit, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical cancer, or external genital lesions caused by the HPV types in the vaccine). Main analyses were done per protocol. Combined incidence of persistent infection or disease with HPV 6, 11, 16, or 18 fell by 90% (95% CI 71-97, p<0.0001) in those assigned vaccine compared with those assigned placebo. A vaccine targeting HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18 could substantially reduce the acquisition of infection and clinical disease caused by common HPV types.
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              A controlled trial of a human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine.

              Approximately 20 percent of adults become infected with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16). Although most infections are benign, some progress to anogenital cancer. A vaccine that reduces the incidence of HPV-16 infection may provide important public health benefits. In this double-blind study, we randomly assigned 2392 young women (defined as females 16 to 23 years of age) to receive three doses of placebo or HPV-16 virus-like-particle vaccine (40 microg per dose), given at day 0, month 2, and month 6. Genital samples to test for HPV-16 DNA were obtained at enrollment, one month after the third vaccination, and every six months thereafter. Women were referred for colposcopy according to a protocol. Biopsy tissue was evaluated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and analyzed for HPV-16 DNA with use of the polymerase chain reaction. The primary end point was persistent HPV-16 infection, defined as the detection of HPV-16 DNA in samples obtained at two or more visits. The primary analysis was limited to women who were negative for HPV-16 DNA and HPV-16 antibodies at enrollment and HPV-16 DNA at month 7. The women were followed for a median of 17.4 months after completing the vaccination regimen. The incidence of persistent HPV-16 infection was 3.8 per 100 woman-years at risk in the placebo group and 0 per 100 woman-years at risk in the vaccine group (100 percent efficacy; 95 percent confidence interval, 90 to 100; P<0.001). All nine cases of HPV-16-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia occurred among the placebo recipients. Administration of this HPV-16 vaccine reduced the incidence of both HPV-16 infection and HPV-16-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Immunizing HPV-16-negative women may eventually reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Copyright 2002 Massachusetts Medical Society
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Division of Medical Virology, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa
                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                February 2008
                February 2008
                : 4
                : 1
                : 65-70
                Affiliations
                Division of Medical Virology, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Vandana A Govan Room S3.26.1 Wernher and Beit South Wing,Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences University of Cape Town, Medical School, Observatory, Cape Town South Africa Tel +27 21 4066366 Fax +27 21 4066681 Email vandana.govan@ 123456uct.ac.za
                Article
                2503667
                18728721
                © 2008 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved
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                Medicine

                gardasil, hpv, prophylactic vaccine, cervical disease

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