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      Mitral valve reoperation under ventricular fibrillation through right mini-thoracotomy using three-dimensional videoscope

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          Conventional reoperative mitral valve surgery by median sternotomy has several difficulties. We performed mitral valve replacement (MVR) under ventricular fibrillation (VF) through right mini-thoracotomy with three-dimensional videoscope for avoiding the problems.


          Between 2006 and 2011, we performed 257 cases of MVR, in which 125 cases underwent isolated MVR. Ten cases of patients underwent reoperative MVR under VF through thoracotomy with three-dimensional videoscope (Group I), and 27 cases of patients underwent reoperative conventional MVR through median sternotomy (Group II). We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes and compared Group I with Group II. Preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly lower (50.5 ± 19.8% vs 64.4 ± 12.0%; p = 0.046), and significantly higher Euro SCORE was found in Group I (4.8 ± 2.0 vs 3.8 ± 2.4; p = 0.037).


          Although Group I required cooling and rewarming time, average operative times was significantly shorter in Group I (262 ± 46 min vs 300 ± 57 min; p = 0.044), and cardiopulmonary bypass times and average VF times in Group I and aortic cross-clamp times in Group II were equivalent. There was no significant difference in the average of postoperative maximum creatine kinase (CK)-MB. In-hospital mortality was 0/10 (0%) and 1/27 (3.7%), and postoperative paravalvular leakage occurred in 0/10 (0%) and 1/27 (3.7%), and stroke occurred in 1/10 (10%) and 1/27 (3.7%) for Groups I and II. Two patients underwent reoperation for bleeding in Group II. Intensive care unit stay in Group I was significantly shorter than in Group II (1.8 ± 0.6 days vs 3.0 ± 1.7 days; p = 0.025).


          The higher risk of preoperative background in Group I had no effect on the operation. Mitral valve surgery under VF through right mini-thoracotomy can be an alternative procedure for reoperation after conventional various cardiothoracic surgeries.

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          Prediction of operative mortality after valve replacement surgery.

          We sought to develop national benchmarks for valve replacement surgery by developing statistical risk models of operative mortality. National risk models for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) have gained widespread acceptance, but there are no similar models for valve replacement surgery. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Cardiac Surgery Database was used to identify risk factors associated with valve surgery from 1994 through 1997. The population was drawn from 49,073 patients undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR) or mitral valve replacement (MVR) and from 43,463 patients undergoing CABG combined with AVR or MVR. Two multivariable risk models were developed: one for isolated AVR or MVR and one for CABG plus AVR or CABG plus MVR. Operative mortality rates for AVR, MVR, combined CABG/AVR and combined CABG/ MVR were 4.00%, 6.04%, 6.80% and 13.29%, respectively. The strongest independent risk factors were emergency/salvage procedures, recent infarction, reoperations and renal failure. The c-indexes were 0.77 and 0.74 for the isolated valve replacement and combined CABG/valve replacement models, respectively. These models retained their predictive accuracy when applied to a prospective patient population undergoing operation from 1998 to 1999. The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic was 10.6 (p = 0.225) for the isolated valve replacement model and 12.2 (p = 0.141) for the CABG/valve replacement model. Statistical models have been developed to accurately predict operative mortality after valve replacement surgery. These models can be used to enhance quality by providing a national benchmark for valve replacement surgery.
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            Determinants of operative mortality in valvular heart surgery.

            In some respects, outcome reporting in valvular surgery has been hampered by focusing on specific populations, reluctance to publish high-risk subgroups, and possibly skewed or inadequate samples. The goal of this study was to evaluate risk factors for operative mortality comprehensively across the entire spectrum of cardiac valvular procedures over the past decade. All 409,904 valve procedures in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database performed between 1994 and 2003 were assessed, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons preoperative and operative variables were related to operative mortality by using a multivariable logistic regression model. Data were greater than 95% complete, and the relative importance of relevant risk factors was determined by ranking odds ratios. The analysis had a high predictive power, with a C statistic of 0.735. In the model, 19 variables independently influenced operative mortality (all P < .01). The most significant was nonelective (acute) presentation (odds ratios, 2.11), followed by advanced age (odds ratios, 1.88), reoperation (odds ratios, 1.61), endocarditis (odds ratios, 1.59), and coronary disease (odds ratios, 1.58). Generally, valve replacement was associated with higher mortality than repair (odds ratios, 1.52). Overall, female gender was very important (odds ratios, 1.37), and earlier year of operation increased risk (odds ratios, 1.34), implying improving outcomes over time. Although any single comorbidity, on average, was only moderately contributory (odds ratios, 1.19), specific comorbidities, such as renal failure, or multiple comorbidities in a given patient could be very significant. Aortic root reconstruction carried the highest risk (odds ratios, 2.78), followed by tricuspid valve surgery (odds ratios, 2.26), multiple valve procedures (odds ratios, 2.06), and then isolated mitral (odds ratios, 1.47), pulmonic (odds ratios, 1.29), and aortic (reference procedure) operations. Reduced ejection fraction and severity of valve lesion were relatively less important (odds ratios, 1.34 and 0.83, respectively). These data illustrate the significance of acute presentation in determining operative risk, and earlier surgical intervention under elective conditions might be emphasized for all types of significant valve lesions. Because aortic root reconstruction doubles mortality compared with simple aortic valve procedures, root replacement should be reserved for specific root pathology. Finally, issues related to reoperation, endocarditis, valve repair, gender, and the various procedures deserve more detailed examination.
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              Comparison of early postoperative quality of life in minimally invasive versus conventional valve surgery.

              Minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS), an approach in which full sternotomy is avoided and the surgical incision is minimal, has been shown to produce less postoperative discomfort and to enable earlier mobilization and discharge than conventional cardiac surgery (CCS). This study was performed to retrospectively evaluate quality of life following MICS in comparison with CCS valve surgery. Sixty-six patients scheduled for MICS and 50 patients scheduled for CCS for isolated aortic or mitral valve surgery from January 1999 to June 2001 were enrolled in the study. The clinical records for the two groups were compared across intraoperative parameters and those associated with postoperative quality of life. The aortic clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass times in the MICS group were longer than those in the CCS group (144 +/- 42 and 224 +/- 58min vs 112 +/- 21 and 179 +/- 27min, P < 0.001). Postoperative pain medication (rectal buprenorphine and intramuscular pethidine) was administered to 18 of the 66 MICS patients (27%), as compared with 26 of the 50 CCS patients (52%, P = 0.007). Postoperative delirium was less frequent in the MICS group than the CCS group (26% vs 44%, P = 0.039). Initial postoperative food intake and urine catheter removal were possible earlier in the MICS than in the CCS group. MICS patients had shorter stays in the intensive care unit than CCS patients (37.4 +/- 7.3 vs 45.9 +/- 8.7h, P < 0.001). Although longer aortic clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass times remain a problem in MICS procedures, our results suggest that MICS, as compared with CCS, facilitates earlier recovery of daily activities and provides improved quality of life in the early postoperative period.

                Author and article information

                J Cardiothorac Surg
                J Cardiothorac Surg
                Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
                BioMed Central
                12 April 2013
                : 8
                : 81
                [1 ]Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The Sakakibara Heart Institute of Okayama, 2-5-1 Nakaicho, Okayama, Kita-ku, 700-0804, Japan
                Copyright ©2013 Hiraoka et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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