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      3D bioprinting of cells, tissues and organs

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          Abstract

          3D bioprinting has emerged as a promising new approach for fabricating complex biological constructs in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. It aims to alleviate the hurdles of conventional tissue engineering methods by precise and controlled layer-by-layer assembly of biomaterials in a desired 3D pattern. The 3D bioprinting of cells, tissues, and organs Collection at Scientific Reports brings together a myriad of studies portraying the capabilities of different bioprinting modalities. This Collection amalgamates research aimed at 3D bioprinting organs for fulfilling demands of organ shortage, cell patterning for better tissue fabrication, and building better disease models.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Aspiration-assisted bioprinting for precise positioning of biologics

          Aspiration-assisted bioprinting enables precise positioning of viscoelastic spheroids in both scaffold-based and free manner.
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            3D Bioprinting of osteochondral tissue substitutes – in vitro -chondrogenesis in multi-layered mineralized constructs

            For the generation of multi-layered full thickness osteochondral tissue substitutes with an individual geometry based on clinical imaging data, combined extrusion-based 3D printing (3D plotting) of a bioink laden with primary chondrocytes and a mineralized biomaterial phase was introduced. A pasty calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and a bioink based on alginate-methylcellulose (algMC) – both are biocompatible and allow 3D plotting with high shape fidelity – were applied in monophasic and combinatory design to recreate osteochondral tissue layers. The capability of cells reacting to chondrogenic biochemical stimuli inside the algMC-based 3D hydrogel matrix was assessed. Towards combined osteochondral constructs, the chondrogenic fate in the presence of CPC in co-fabricated and biphasic mineralized pattern was evaluated. Majority of expanded and algMC-encapsulated cells survived the plotting process and the cultivation period, and were able to undergo redifferentiation in the provided environment to produce their respective extracellular matrix (ECM) components (i.e. sulphated glycosaminoglycans, collagen type II), examined after 3 weeks. The presence of a mineralized zone as located in the physiological calcified cartilage region suspected to interfere with chondrogenesis, was found to support chondrogenic ECM production by altering the ionic concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in in vitro culture conditions.
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              Long-distance airborne dispersal of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 wards

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                ito1@psu.edu
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                18 August 2020
                18 August 2020
                2020
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.29857.31, ISNI 0000 0001 2097 4281, Department of Chemistry, , Penn State University, ; University Park, PA 16802 USA
                [2 ]GRID grid.29857.31, ISNI 0000 0001 2097 4281, The Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, , Penn State University, ; University Park, PA 16802 USA
                [3 ]GRID grid.29857.31, ISNI 0000 0001 2097 4281, Engineering Science and Mechanics Department, , Penn State University, ; University Park, PA 16802 USA
                [4 ]GRID grid.29857.31, ISNI 0000 0001 2097 4281, Biomedical Engineering Department, , Penn State University, ; University Park, PA 16802 USA
                [5 ]GRID grid.29857.31, ISNI 0000 0001 2097 4281, Materials Research Institute, , Penn State University, ; University Park, PA 16802 USA
                Article
                70086
                10.1038/s41598-020-70086-y
                7434768
                32811864
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                Editorial
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                © The Author(s) 2020

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                tissue engineering, regeneration, experimental models of disease

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