Electromicrobiology is a subdiscipline of microbiology that involves extracellular electron transfer (EET) to (or from) insoluble electron active redox compounds located outside the outer membrane of the cell. These interactions can often be studied using electrochemical techniques which have provided novel insights into microbial physiology in recent years. The mechanisms (and variations) of outward EET are well understood for two model systems, Shewanella and Geobacter, both of which employ multihaem cytochromes to provide an electron conduit to the cell exterior. In contrast, little is known of the intricacies of inward EET, even in these model systems. Given the number of labs now working on EET, it seems likely that most of the mechanistic details will be understood in a few years for the model systems, and the many applications of electromicrobiology will continue to move forward. But emerging work, using electrodes as electron acceptors and donors is providing an abundance of new types of microbes capable of EET inward and/or outward: microbes that are clearly different from our known systems. The extent of this very diverse, and perhaps widely distributed and biogeochemically important ability needs to be determined to understand the mechanisms, importance, and raison d'etre of EET for microbial biology.