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      Subcutaneous mycoses caused by Rhytidhysteron species in an immunocompetent patient

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          Abstract

          Subcutaneous mycoses are chronic fungal infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused by variety of fungal agents and usually occur following trauma with vegetative matter. We report a case of subcutaneous mycoses caused by rare fungus belonging to the genus Rhytidhysteron, in an immunocompetent male who presented with a subcutaneous nodule on left foot. This unusual species was identified and confirmed by molecular methods.

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          On the evolution of the Hysteriaceae and Mytilinidiaceae (Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) using four nuclear genes.

          We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis for two families within the Pleosporomycetidae (Dothideomycetes), the Hysteriaceae, and the Mytilinidiaceae, using four nuclear genes, the ribosomal LSU and SSU, transcription elongation factor 1 alpha and the second largest RNA polymerase II subunit. Multigene phylogenies provide strong support for the monophyly of the Hysteriaceae and of the Mytilinidiaceae, both within the Pleosporomycetidae. However, sequence data also indicate that both families are not closely related within the subclass. Although core groups for many of the genera in the Hysteriaceae have been defined, Hysterium, Gloniopsis, and Hysterographium are polyphyletic, with affinities not premised on spore septation and pigmentation. Glonium is also polyphyletic, but along two highly divergent lines. The genus lies outside of the Hysteriaceae, and finds close affinities instead with the family Mytilinidiaceae, for which we propose Gloniaceae fam. nov. to accommodate the type, G. stellatum and related forms. The genus Psiloglonium is reinstated within the Hysteriaceae, with P. lineare, as type, to accommodate non-subiculate species, with apically obtuse didymospores. Farlowiella is removed from the Hysteriaceae, but remains within the Pleosporomycetidae. In contrast, despite divergent spore morphologies, the genera Mytilinidion and Lophium form a strongly supported clade, thus defining a highly monophyletic Mytilinidiaceae, adjacent to the Gloniaceae, for which we propose the Mytilinidiales ord. nov. The genus Ostreichnion, previously in the Mytilinidiaceae, is here transferred to the Hysteriaceae. It is concluded that the evolution of the hysterothecium occurred multiple times within the Pleosporomycetidae, and alone it is not a synapomorphic character state for the Hysteriaceae.
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            Chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis: new concepts, diagnosis, and mycology.

            The nomenclature for the mycoses caused by dematiaceous fungi should represent the combined clinical, pathologic, and mycologic relationships exhibited in the diseases. Chromoblastomycosis encompasses chronic, localized infections of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues that contain sclerotic bodies and histologically show hyperkeratotic pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia with keratolytic microabscess formation in the epidermis. In contrast, phaeohyphomycosis is a collective term for a heterogeneous group of mycotic infections that contain dematiaceous yeastlike cells, pseudohyphae-like elements, hyphae, or any combination of these forms in tissue. The terms superficial, cutaneous and corneal, subcutaneous, and systemic phaeohyphomycosis are proposed for the major categories of phaeohyphomycosis. The term chromomycosis is rejected for mycoses caused by the dematiaceous fungi.
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              Subcutaneous mycoses

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Med Mycol Case Rep
                Med Mycol Case Rep
                Medical Mycology Case Reports
                Elsevier
                2211-7539
                23 July 2014
                23 July 2014
                July 2014
                : 5
                : 32-34
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Pathology, University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi 110095, India
                [b ]Department of Microbiology, University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi 110095, India
                [c ]Department of Dermatology, University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi 110095, India
                Article
                S2211-7539(14)00029-3
                10.1016/j.mmcr.2014.07.002
                4147701
                © 2014 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

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