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      Itraconazole solid dispersion prepared by a supercritical fluid technique: preparation, in vitro characterization, and bioavailability in beagle dogs

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          Abstract

          This research aimed to develop a supercritical fluid (SCF) technique for preparing a particulate form of itraconazole (ITZ) with good dissolution and bioavailability characteristics. The ITZ particulate solid dispersion was formulated with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, Pluronic F-127, and L-ascorbic acid. Aggregated particles showed porous structure when examined by scanning electron microscopy. Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated an interaction between ITZ and excipients and showed that ITZ existed in an amorphous state in the composite solid dispersion particles. The solid dispersion obtained by the SCF process improved the dissolution of ITZ in media of pH 1.0, pH 4.5, and pH 6.8, compared with a commercial product (Sporanox ®), which could be ascribed to the porous aggregated particle shape and amorphous solid state of ITZ. While the solid dispersion did not show a statistical improvement ( P=0.50) in terms of oral bioavailability of ITZ compared with Sporanox ®, the C max (the maximum plasma concentration of ITZ in a pharmacokinetic curve) of ITZ was raised significantly ( P=0.03) after oral administration. Thus, the SCF process has been shown to be an efficient, single step process to form ITZ-containing solid dispersion particles with good dissolution and oral bioavailability characteristics.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Characterization of the interaction of 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin with itraconazole at pH 2, 4, and 7.

          Phase-solubility techniques were used to assess the effect of pH on itraconazole complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD). In addition, molecular modeling using beta-cyclodextrin as a surrogate for HPbetaCD was completed. Data suggested A(p)-type solubility relationships, indicating higher order complexation at higher HPbetaCD concentrations. Stability constants were derived from the solubility isotherms using a simplex optimization procedure. At pH 2 (2 units below the pK(a4)), a 1:2 complex formation was observed, whereas at pH 4 (i.e., the pK(a4) for itraconazole) and at pH 7, 1:3 complexation occurred. The lower order of complexation observed at lower pH may be related to substructure protonation which reduced HPbetaCD interaction. Molecular mechanics also suggest 1:3 complex formation for the neutral species, indicating that possible interaction sites may include (in order of binding) triazole > 1,4-diaminophenyl > 2-butyl approximate, equals piperazine. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            Itraconazole: an update on pharmacology and clinical use for treatment of invasive and allergic fungal infections.

            Fungal infections are a major source of global morbidity and mortality. Itraconazole is a triazole antifungal agent that is widely used for the prevention and treatment of fungal infection. While newer antifungal agents are now available, itraconazole is an orally bioavailable agent with broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Itraconazole remains a useful drug for the management of allergic and invasive mycoses worldwide. This article provides a summary of the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical uses of itraconazole. Additionally, the authors summarise the safety and recently described toxicodynamics and discuss the value of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) with itraconazole. The following search criteria were constructed in order to identify relevant literature using PubMed and Ovid-MEDLINE: itraconazole, triazole, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, toxicodynamics and TDM. Relevant abstracts and articles identified from reviewing secondary citations were additionally retrieved and included if relevant. Itraconazole remains an important agent in the prevention and treatment of fungal infection. Itraconazole has a broad-spectrum of activity and is available in both an intravenous and oral form making long-term use in chronic mycoses practical. Itraconazole is widely used for the treatment of endemic fungal infections. Pharmacokinetic variability and clinically important drug interactions make TDM of itraconazole an important consideration.
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              Enhanced bioavailability of sirolimus via preparation of solid dispersion nanoparticles using a supercritical antisolvent process

              Background The aim of this study was to improve the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble sirolimus via preparation of a solid dispersion of nanoparticles using a supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process. Methods First, excipients for enhancing the stability and solubility of sirolimus were screened. Second, using the SAS process, solid dispersions of sirolimus-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K30 nanoparticles were prepared with or without surfactants such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), tocopheryl propylene glycol succinate, Sucroester 15, Gelucire 50/13, and Myrj 52. A mean particle size of approximately 250 nm was obtained for PVP K30-sirolimus nanoparticles. Solid state characterization, kinetic solubility, powder dissolution, stability, and pharmacokinetics were analyzed in rats. Results X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and high-pressure liquid chromatography indicated that sirolimus existed in an anhydrous amorphous form within a solid dispersion of nanoparticles and that no degradation occurred after SAS processing. The improved supersaturation and dissolution of sirolimus as a solid dispersion of nanoparticles appeared to be well correlated with enhanced bioavailability of oral sirolimus in rats. With oral administration of a solid dispersion of PVP K30-SLS-sirolimus nanoparticles, the peak concentration and AUC0→12h of sirolimus were increased by approximately 18.3-fold and 15.2-fold, respectively. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that preparation of PVP K30-sirolimus-surfactant nanoparticles using the SAS process may be a promising approach for improving the bioavailability of sirolimus.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                28 May 2015
                : 9
                : 2801-2810
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery of Ministry of Education, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Crystec Pharma Tianjin Research Centre, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Changzhou Pharmaceutical Factory, Changzhou, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jianping Qi, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery of Ministry of Education, 826 Zhangheng Road, Pudong New District, Shanghai 201203, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 21 5198 0084, Fax +86 21 5198 0084, Email qijianping@ 123456fudan.edu.cn
                Article
                dddt-9-2801
                10.2147/DDDT.S81253
                4454206
                © 2015 Yin et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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