Background: Dopamine of renal origin exerts natriuretic and diuretic effects by activating D<sub>1</sub>-like receptors located at various regions in the nephron. Two weeks after uninephrectomy the renal dopaminergic system was suggested to be involved in the adaptative increase of sodium excretion. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the renal adaptations in sodium handling and renal dopaminergic system activity in uninephrectomized (Unx) rats up to 26 weeks after the surgery. Results: A time-dependent increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed in Unx rats up to 26 weeks after uninephrectomy. This was accompanied by a compensatory increase in aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase at 2 weeks but not 10 and 26 weeks after uninephrectomy. In contrast to what has been found 2 weeks after uninephrectomy, at 10 and 26 weeks after surgery the natriuretic response to volume expansion was reduced in Unx rats and this was accompanied by insensitivity of natriuresis to dopamine D1 receptor selective antagonist (Sch23390). Conclusion: A time-dependent decrease in dopamine sensitive natriuresis is observed in Unx rats throughout the 26 weeks after uninephectomy. It is suggested that this may contribute to compromise sodium excretion and increase blood pressure.