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      A pathway for mitotic chromosome formation.

      Science (New York, N.Y.)

      American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

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          Abstract

          Mitotic chromosomes fold as compact arrays of chromatin loops. To identify the pathway of mitotic chromosome formation, we combined imaging and Hi-C of synchronous DT40 cell cultures with polymer simulations. We show that in prophase, the interphase organization is rapidly lost in a condensin-dependent manner and arrays of consecutive 60 kb loops are formed. During prometaphase ~80 kb inner loops are nested within ~400 kb outer loops. The loop array acquires a helical arrangement with consecutive loops emanating from a central spiral-staircase condensin scaffold. The size of helical turns progressively increases during prometaphase to ~12 Mb. Acute depletion of condensin I or II shows that nested loops form by differential action of the two condensins while condensin II is required for helical winding.

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          Organization of the mitotic chromosome.

          Mitotic chromosomes are among the most recognizable structures in the cell, yet for over a century their internal organization remains largely unsolved. We applied chromosome conformation capture methods, 5C and Hi-C, across the cell cycle and revealed two distinct three-dimensional folding states of the human genome. We show that the highly compartmentalized and cell type-specific organization described previously for nonsynchronous cells is restricted to interphase. In metaphase, we identified a homogenous folding state that is locus-independent, common to all chromosomes, and consistent among cell types, suggesting a general principle of metaphase chromosome organization. Using polymer simulations, we found that metaphase Hi-C data are inconsistent with classic hierarchical models and are instead best described by a linearly organized longitudinally compressed array of consecutive chromatin loops.
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            Spatial organization of the mouse genome and its role in recurrent chromosomal translocations.

            The extent to which the three-dimensional organization of the genome contributes to chromosomal translocations is an important question in cancer genomics. We generated a high-resolution Hi-C spatial organization map of the G1-arrested mouse pro-B cell genome and used high-throughput genome-wide translocation sequencing to map translocations from target DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) within it. RAG endonuclease-cleaved antigen-receptor loci are dominant translocation partners for target DSBs regardless of genomic position, reflecting high-frequency DSBs at these loci and their colocalization in a fraction of cells. To directly assess spatial proximity contributions, we normalized genomic DSBs via ionizing radiation. Under these conditions, translocations were highly enriched in cis along single chromosomes containing target DSBs and within other chromosomes and subchromosomal domains in a manner directly related to pre-existing spatial proximity. By combining two high-throughput genomic methods in a genetically tractable system, we provide a new lens for viewing cancer genomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Differential contributions of condensin I and condensin II to mitotic chromosome architecture in vertebrate cells.

              The canonical condensin complex (henceforth condensin I) plays an essential role in mitotic chromosome assembly and segregation from yeast to humans. We report here the identification of a second condensin complex (condensin II) from vertebrate cells. Condensins I and II share the same pair of structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) subunits but contain different sets of non-SMC subunits. siRNA-mediated depletion of condensin I- or condensin II-specific subunits in HeLa cells produces a distinct, highly characteristic defect in chromosome morphology. Simultaneous depletion of both complexes causes the severest defect. In Xenopus egg extracts, condensin I function is predominant, but lack of condensin II results in the formation of irregularly shaped chromosomes. Condensins I and II show different distributions along the axis of chromosomes assembled in vivo and in vitro. We propose that the two condensin complexes make distinct mechanistic contributions to mitotic chromosome architecture in vertebrate cells.
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                Journal
                10.1126/science.aao6135

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