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      Oxycytosis and the role of triboelectricity and oxidation in bacteria clearing from the bloodstream

      European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
      Akadémiai Kiadó
      innate immunity, phagocytosis, oxycytosis, bacteremia, sepsis

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          Until recently, little was known about the mechanism for killing and clearing bacteria from the bloodstream. Leukocyte phagocytosis could not be a mechanism for catching, killing and removing bacteria from the bloodstream because of many reasons. Recently accumulated data have led to the conclusion that in bacteremia, bacteria are quickly removed from the blood and erythrocytes are the main cells that capture, kill and remove bacteria. Data were also obtained that erythrocytes catch bacteria by triboelectric charge attraction and kill them by oxygen released from oxyhemoglobin. This phenomenon has been named oxycytosis by analogy with the term phagocytosis. Oxycytosis has been discussed in a number of published articles, but the specific mechanism of triboelectric charging and the mechanism of killing bacteria by oxidation, have not yet been detailed. The purpose of this review is to provide a more detailed explanation of the process of triboelectric charging and capture of bacteria by erythrocytes and destruction of bacteria by oxidation. For the first time, the review presents various variants of oxycytosis (two-stage, three-stage, multi-stage), depending on the resistance of the pathogen to oxidation. The review also discusses the biological significance of oxycytosis and its impact on the understanding of bacteremia and sepsis.

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          Most cited references59

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                Author and article information

                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                20 May 2021
                10 July 2021
                : 11
                : 2
                : 23-28
                Mamikonyanz 38-38, Yerevan, 0014, Armenia
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author. Tel.: +374 77255295. E-mail: haykminasyan@ 123456rambler.ru
                © 2021, The Author(s)

                Open Access. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes - if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 61, Pages: 6
                Review Paper

                innate immunity,phagocytosis,oxycytosis,bacteremia,sepsis
                innate immunity, phagocytosis, oxycytosis, bacteremia, sepsis


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