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      An Emerging Pulmonary Haemorrhagic Syndrome in Dogs: Similar to the Human Leptospiral Pulmonary Haemorrhagic Syndrome?

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          Abstract

          Severe pulmonary haemorrhage is a rare necropsy finding in dogs but the leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhagic syndrome (LPHS) is a well recognized disease in humans. Here we report a pulmonary haemorrhagic syndrome in dogs that closely resembles the human disease. All 15 dogs had massive, pulmonary haemorrhage affecting all lung lobes while haemorrhage in other organs was minimal. Histologically, pulmonary lesions were characterized by acute, alveolar haemorrhage without identifiable vascular lesions. Seven dogs had mild alveolar wall necrosis with hyaline membranes and minimal intraalveolar fibrin. In addition, eight dogs had acute renal tubular necrosis. Six dogs had a clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis based on renal and hepatic failure, positive microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and/or positive blood/urine Leptospira-specific PCR. Leptospira could not be cultured post mortem from the lungs or kidneys. However, Leptospira-specific PCR was positive in lung, liver or kidneys of three dogs. In summary, a novel pulmonary haemorrhagic syndrome was identified in dogs but the mechanism of the massive pulmonary erythrocyte extravasation remains elusive. The lack of a consistent post mortem identification of Leptospira spp. in dogs with pulmonary haemorrhage raise questions as to whether additional factors besides Leptospira may cause this as yet unrecognized entity in dogs.

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          Most cited references35

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          Leptospirosis-associated Severe Pulmonary Hemorrhagic Syndrome, Salvador, Brazil

          We report the emergence of leptospirosis-associated severe pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome (SPHS) in slum communities in Salvador, Brazil. Although active surveillance did not identify SPHS before 2003, 47 cases were identified from 2003 through 2005; the case-fatality rate was 74%. By 2005, SPHS caused 55% of the deaths due to leptospirosis.
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            Urban epidemic of severe leptospirosis in Brazil

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              Detection of seven species of pathogenic leptospires by PCR using two sets of primers.

              Two sets of primers derived from genomic DNA libraries of Leptospira serovars icterohaemorrhagiae (strain RGA) and bim (strain 1051) enabled the amplification by PCR of target DNA fragments from leptospiral reference strains belonging to all presently described pathogenic Leptospira species. The icterohaemorrhagiae-derived primers (G1/G2) enabled amplification of DNA from L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, L. weilii, L. noguchii, L. santarosai and L. meyeri, whereas the bim-derived primers (B64-I/B64-II) enabled the amplification of L. kirschneri. Southern blot and DNA sequence analysis revealed inter-species DNA polymorphism within the region spanned by primers G1 and G2 between L. interrogans and various other Leptospira species. Using a mixture of primer sets G1/G2 and B64-I/B64-II, leptospires of serovars icterohaemorrhagiae, copenhageni, hardjo, pomona, grippotyphosa and bim were detected in serum samples collected from patients during the first 10 days after the onset of illness.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Vet Med Int
                VMI
                Veterinary Medicine International
                SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
                2042-0048
                2010
                27 December 2010
                : 2010
                : 928541
                Affiliations
                1Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, Robert-von-Ostertag-Straße 15, 14163 Berlin, Germany
                2Small Animal Clinic, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, Oertzenweg 19 b, 14163 Berlin, Germany
                3Department of Molecular Diagnostics, Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Diedersdorfer Weg 1, 14191 Berlin, Germany
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Timm C. Harder

                Article
                10.4061/2010/928541
                3025382
                21274452
                7ea00085-7196-49e9-a8ea-50347bf8b936
                Copyright © 2010 R. Klopfleisch et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 24 November 2010
                : 17 December 2010
                Categories
                Case Report

                Veterinary medicine
                Veterinary medicine

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