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      The Synthesis of Pentyl Leaf Volatiles and Their Role in Resistance to Anthracnose Leaf Blight

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          Abstract

          Volatiles are important airborne chemical messengers that facilitate plant adaptation to a variety of environmental challenges. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) produce a bouquet of non-volatile and volatile oxylipins, including C 6 green leaf volatiles (GLVs), which are involved in a litany of plant physiological processes. GLVs are emitted by a diverse array of plant species, and are the best-known group of LOX-derived volatiles. Five-carbon pentyl leaf volatiles (PLVs) represent another widely emitted group of LOX-derived volatiles that share structural similarity to GLVs, however, relatively little is known about their biosynthesis or biological activity. In this study, we utilized PLV-deficient mutants of maize and Arabidopsis and exogenous PLV applications to elucidate the biosynthetic order of individual PLVs. We further measured PLVs and GLVs after tissue disruption of leaves by two popular methods of volatile elicitation, wounding and freeze-thawing. Freeze-thawing distorted the volatile metabolism of both GLVs and PLVs relative to wounding, though this distortion differed between the two groups of volatiles. These results suggest that despite the structural similarity of these two volatile groups, they are differentially metabolized. Collectively, these results have allowed us to produce the most robust PLV pathway to date. To better elucidate the biological activity of PLVs, we show that PLVs induce maize resistance to the anthracnose pathogen, Colletotrichum graminicola, the effect opposite to that conferred by GLVs. Further analysis of PLV-treated and infected maize leaves revealed that PLV-mediated resistance is associated with early increases of oxylipin α- and γ-ketols, and later increases of oxylipin ketotrienes, hydroxytrienes, and trihydroxydienes. Ultimately, this study has produced the most up-to-date pathway for PLV synthesis, and reveals that PLVs can facilitate pathogen resistance through induction of select oxylipins.

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          NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis

          For the past twenty five years the NIH family of imaging software, NIH Image and ImageJ have been pioneers as open tools for scientific image analysis. We discuss the origins, challenges and solutions of these two programs, and how their history can serve to advise and inform other software projects.
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            A generalization of the retention index system including linear temperature programmed gas—liquid partition chromatography

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              Airborne signals prime plants against insect herbivore attack.

              Green leafy volatiles (GLV), six-carbon aldehydes, alcohols, and esters commonly emitted by plants in response to mechanical damage or herbivory, induced intact undamaged corn seedlings to rapidly produce jasmonic acid (JA) and emit sesquiterpenes. More importantly, corn seedlings previously exposed to GLV from neighboring plants produced significantly more JA and volatile sesquiterpenes when mechanically damaged and induced with caterpillar regurgitant than seedlings not exposed to GLV. The use of pure synthetic chemicals revealed that (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate have nearly identical priming activity. Caterpillar-induced nocturnal volatiles, which are enriched in GLV, also exhibited a strong priming effect, inducing production of larger amounts of JA and release of greater quantities of volatile organic compounds after caterpillar regurgitant application. In contrast, GLV priming did not affect JA production induced by mechanical wounding alone. Thus, GLV specifically prime neighboring plants against impending herbivory by enhancing inducible chemical defense responses triggered during attack and may play a key role in plant-plant signaling and plant-insect interactions.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                26 August 2021
                2021
                : 12
                : 719587
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Texas A&M University , College Station, TX, United States
                [2] 2Department of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M University , College Station, TX, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Mario Serrano, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico

                Reviewed by: Kenji Matsui, Yamaguchi University, Japan; Jian-Feng Li, Sun Yat-sen University, China

                *Correspondence: Michael V. Kolomiets, kolomiets@ 123456tamu.edu

                This article was submitted to Plant Pathogen Interactions, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2021.719587
                8427672
                34512698
                7eb40863-215d-4338-b085-6cfd1a17b260
                Copyright © 2021 Gorman, Tolley, Koiwa and Kolomiets.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 02 June 2021
                : 26 July 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 5, Equations: 0, References: 61, Pages: 15, Words: 0
                Funding
                Funded by: National Institute of Food and Agriculture 10.13039/100005825
                Award ID: 2017-67013-26524
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Original Research

                Plant science & Botany
                green leaf volatile (glv),volatile organic compound (voc),colletotrichum graminicola,lipoxygenase (lox),priming,oxylipin,ketol

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