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      Decoherence and relaxation of a superconducting quantum bit during measurement

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      Physical Review B

      American Physical Society (APS)

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          Quantum tunnelling in a dissipative system

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            Elementary gates for quantum computation

             Harald Weinfurter (corresponding) (2010)
            We show that a set of gates that consists of all one-bit quantum gates (U(2)) and the two-bit exclusive-or gate (that maps Boolean values \((x,y)\) to \((x,x \oplus y)\)) is universal in the sense that all unitary operations on arbitrarily many bits \(n\) (U(\(2^n\))) can be expressed as compositions of these gates. We investigate the number of the above gates required to implement other gates, such as generalized Deutsch-Toffoli gates, that apply a specific U(2) transformation to one input bit if and only if the logical AND of all remaining input bits is satisfied. These gates play a central role in many proposed constructions of quantum computational networks. We derive upper and lower bounds on the exact number of elementary gates required to build up a variety of two-and three-bit quantum gates, the asymptotic number required for \(n\)-bit Deutsch-Toffoli gates, and make some observations about the number required for arbitrary \(n\)-bit unitary operations.
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              Quantum superposition of distinct macroscopic states

              In 1935, Schrodinger attempted to demonstrate the limitations of quantum mechanics using a thought experiment in which a cat is put in a quantum superposition of alive and dead states. The idea remained an academic curiosity until the 1980s when it was proposed that, under suitable conditions, a macroscopic object with many microscopic degrees of freedom could behave quantum mechanically, provided that it was sufficiently decoupled from its environment. Although much progress has been made in demonstrating the macroscopic quantum behaviour of various systems such as superconductors, nanoscale magnets, laser-cooled trapped ions, photons in a microwave cavity and C60 molecules, there has been no experimental demonstration of a quantum superposition of truly macroscopically distinct states. Here we present experimental evidence that a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) can be put into a superposition of two magnetic-flux states: one corresponding to a few microamperes of current flowing clockwise, the other corresponding to the same amount of current flowing anticlockwise.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                PRBMDO
                Physical Review B
                Phys. Rev. B
                American Physical Society (APS)
                0163-1829
                1095-3795
                April 2002
                April 1 2002
                : 65
                : 14
                Article
                10.1103/PhysRevB.65.144516
                © 2002
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