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      Comparative analysis of the integument of different tree frog species from Ololygon and Scinax genera (Anura: Hylidae)

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      Zoologia

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The integuments of ten treefrog species of two genera from Scinaxnae – O. angrensis (Lutz, 1973), O. flavoguttata (Lutz & Lutz, 1939), O. humilis (Lutz & Lutz, 1954), O. perpusilla (Lutz & Lutz, 1939), O. v-signata (Lutz, 1968), Scinax hayii (Barbour, 1909), S. similis (Cochran, 1952), O. trapicheroi (Lutz & Lutz, 1954) and S. x-signatus (Spix, 1824) – were investigated using conventional and histochemical techniques of light microscopy, and polarized light microscopy. All integuments showed the basic structure of the anuran integument. Moreover, the secretory portions of exocrine glands, such as serous merocrine and apocrine glands, were found to be restricted to the spongious dermis. Lipid content occurred together with the heterogeneous secretory material of the glands with an apocrine secretion mechanism. In addition, clusters of these apocrine glands were present in the ventrolateral integument of some species. Melanophores were also visualized in all examined hylids. However, the occurrence of iridophores, detected through polarized light microscopy, varied according to the species. The Eberth-Katschenko layer occurred in the dorsal integument from both genera, but it was only present in the ventral integument of O. albicans, O. angrensis, O. flavoguttata, O. perpusilla and O. v-signata. Although the integument of all treefrogs showed the same basic structure, some characteristics were genus-specific; however, these features alone may not be used to distinguish both genera.

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          The structure and function of hyaluronan: An overview.

          Hyaluronan is a major component of synovial tissue and fluid as well as other soft connective tissues. It is a high-Mr polysaccharide which forms entangled networks already at dilute concentrations (< 1 mg/mL) and endows its solutions with unique rheological properties. Physiological functions of hyaluronan (lubrication, water homeostasis, macromolecular filtering, exclusion, etc.) have been ascribed to the properties of these networks. Recently a number of specific interactions between hyaluronan and a group of proteins named hyaladherins have also pointed towards a role of hyaluronan in recognition and the regulation of cellular activities. Many more or less well documented hypotheses have been proposed for the function of hyaluronan in joints, for example, that it should lubricate, protect cartilage surfaces, scavenge free radicals and debris, keep the joint cavities open, form flow barriers in the synovium and prevent capillary growth.
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            The chemistry of poisons in amphibian skin.

             W Daly (1995)
            Poisons are common in nature, where they often serve the organism in chemical defense. Such poisons either are produced de novo or are sequestered from dietary sources or symbiotic organisms. Among vertebrates, amphibians are notable for the wide range of noxious agents that are contained in granular skin glands. These compounds include amines, peptides, proteins, steroids, and both water-soluble and lipid-soluble alkaloids. With the exception of the alkaloids, most seem to be produced de novo by the amphibian. The skin of amphibians contains many structural classes of alkaloids previously unknown in nature. These include the batrachotoxins, which have recently been discovered to also occur in skin and feathers of a bird, the histrionicotoxins, the gephyrotoxins, the decahydroquinolines, the pumiliotoxins and homopumiliotoxins, epibatidine, and the samandarines. Some amphibian skin alkaloids are clearly sequestered from the diet, which consists mainly of small arthropods. These include pyrrolizidine and indolizidine alkaloids from ants, tricyclic coccinellines from beetles, and pyrrolizidine oximes, presumably from millipedes. The sources of other alkaloids in amphibian skin, including the batrachotoxins, the decahydroquinolines, the histrionicotoxins, the pumiliotoxins, and epibatidine, are unknown. While it is possible that these are produced de novo or by symbiotic microorganisms, it appears more likely that they are sequestered by the amphibians from as yet unknown dietary sources.
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              THE DERMAL CHROMATOPHORE UNIT

              Rapid color changes of amphibians are mediated by three types of dermal chromatophores, xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores, which comprise a morphologically and physiologically distinct structure, the dermal chromatophore unit. Xanthophores, the outermost element, are located immediately below the basal lamella. Iridophores, containing light-reflecting organelles, are found just beneath the xanthophores. Under each iridophore is found a melanophore from which processes extend upward around the iridophore. Finger-like structures project from these processes and occupy fixed spaces between the xanthophores and iridophores. When a frog darkens, melanosomes move upward from the body of the melanophore to fill the fingers which then obscure the overlying iridophore. Rapid blanching is accomplished by the evacuation of melanosomes from these fingers. Pale coloration ranging from tan to green is provided by the overlying xanthophores and iridophores. Details of chromatophore structure are presented, and the nature of the intimate contact between the chromatophore types is discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Zoologia
                Zoologia
                Pensoft Publishers
                1984-4689
                September 18 2017
                September 18 2017
                : 34
                : 1-17
                Article
                10.3897/zoologia.34.e20176
                © 2017

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