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      TLC-Based Bioassay to Isolate Kairomones from Tea Tree Essential Oil That Attract Male Mediterranean Fruit Flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) †

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          Abstract

          The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) poses a major threat to fruit and vegetable production in the United States and throughout the world. New attractants and detection methods could improve control strategies for this invasive pest. In this study, we developed a method that combined thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of tea tree essential oil (TTO) ( Melaleuca alternifolia) with short-range bioassays to isolate attractive kairomones for male C. capitata. After development, the TLC chromatogram indicated that TTO separated into five major spots, designated as zones 1 to 5. When the TLC plate was exposed to flies, zones 1 and 3 were strongly attractive to male C. capitata. To confirm activity, the developed TLC plate was cut into five zones which were then tested in short-range bioassays. Again, flies were observed to aggregate around zones 1 and 3, which corresponded with R f values of 0.93 and 0.59. In addition, zones 1 to 5 were separated using preparative-TLC, and olfactory responses to volatile emissions from the five fractions were quantified by electroantennography (EAG). Highest amplitude EAG responses were recorded with fractions 1 and 3, further supporting the bioactivity of these samples. In conclusion, a TLC-based bioassay system can provide an effective, rapid screening protocol for initial isolation of insect kairomones from complex mixtures such as essential oils or plant extracts. Further analysis of TTO fractions 1 and 3 is needed to identify the specific constituents attractive to male C. capitata.

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          Gas chromatographic quality control for oil of Melaleuca terpinen-4-ol type (Australian tea tree)

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            Global Assessment of Seasonal Potential Distribution of Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

            The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species.
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              Host Plants of Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Island of Hawaii (1949-1985 Survey)

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomolecules
                Biomolecules
                biomolecules
                Biomolecules
                MDPI
                2218-273X
                28 April 2020
                May 2020
                : 10
                : 5
                : 683
                Affiliations
                [1 ]United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Subtropical Horticulture Research Station (SHRS), Miami, FL 33158, USA
                [2 ]Niogret Ecology Consulting LLC, 13601 Old Cutler Road, Miami, FL 33158, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Nurhayat.Tabanca@ 123456usda.gov (N.T.); epskyn@ 123456gmail.com (N.D.E.); Tel.: +1-(786)-573-7077 (N.T.)
                [†]

                This work was produced by US government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2802-8796
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4425-0733
                Article
                biomolecules-10-00683
                10.3390/biom10050683
                7277685
                32354100
                7ed5b90b-8d78-40b1-9722-732c9d0a1de8
                © 2020 by the US government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 19 March 2020
                : 20 April 2020
                Categories
                Article

                invasive insect pest,semiochemicals,attractant,thin-layer chromatography,terpinen-4-ol,α-terpineol,electroantennography

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