Advances in our understanding of the biology of spinal systems in organizing and defining the content of exteroceptive information upon which higher centers define the state of the organism and its role in the regulation of somatic and automatic output, defining the motor response of the organism, along with the unique biology and spatial organization of this space, have resulted in an increased focus on therapeutics targeted at this extracranial neuraxial space. Intrathecal (IT) drug delivery systems (IDDS) are well-established as an effective therapeutic approach to patients with chronic non-malignant or malignant pain and as a tool for management of patients with severe spasticity and to deliver therapeutics that address a myriad of spinal pathologies. The risk to benefit ratio of IDD makes it a useful interventional approach. While not without risks, this approach has a significant therapeutic safety margin when employed using drugs with a validated safety profile and by skilled practioners. The present review addresses current advances in our understanding of the biology and dynamics of the intrathecal space, therapeutic platforms, novel therapeutics, delivery technology, issues of safety and rational implementation of its therapy, with a particular emphasis upon the management of pain.