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      Bile acids induce energy expenditure by promoting intracellular thyroid hormone activation

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          Abstract

          While bile acids (BAs) have long been known to be essential in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol catabolism, in recent years an important role for BAs as signalling molecules has emerged. BAs activate mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, are ligands for the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) TGR5 and activate nuclear hormone receptors such as farnesoid X receptor alpha (FXR-alpha; NR1H4). FXR-alpha regulates the enterohepatic recycling and biosynthesis of BAs by controlling the expression of genes such as the short heterodimer partner (SHP; NR0B2) that inhibits the activity of other nuclear receptors. The FXR-alpha-mediated SHP induction also underlies the downregulation of the hepatic fatty acid and triglyceride biosynthesis and very-low-density lipoprotein production mediated by sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein 1c. This indicates that BAs might be able to function beyond the control of BA homeostasis as general metabolic integrators. Here we show that the administration of BAs to mice increases energy expenditure in brown adipose tissue, preventing obesity and resistance to insulin. This novel metabolic effect of BAs is critically dependent on induction of the cyclic-AMP-dependent thyroid hormone activating enzyme type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) because it is lost in D2-/- mice. Treatment of brown adipocytes and human skeletal myocytes with BA increases D2 activity and oxygen consumption. These effects are independent of FXR-alpha, and instead are mediated by increased cAMP production that stems from the binding of BAs with the G-protein-coupled receptor TGR5. In both rodents and humans, the most thermogenically important tissues are specifically targeted by this mechanism because they coexpress D2 and TGR5. The BA-TGR5-cAMP-D2 signalling pathway is therefore a crucial mechanism for fine-tuning energy homeostasis that can be targeted to improve metabolic control.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Identification of a nuclear receptor for bile acids.

          Bile acids are essential for the solubilization and transport of dietary lipids and are the major products of cholesterol catabolism. Results presented here show that bile acids are physiological ligands for the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), an orphan nuclear receptor. When bound to bile acids, FXR repressed transcription of the gene encoding cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, and activated the gene encoding intestinal bile acid-binding protein, which is a candidate bile acid transporter. These results demonstrate a mechanism by which bile acids transcriptionally regulate their biosynthesis and enterohepatic transport.
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            A regulatory cascade of the nuclear receptors FXR, SHP-1, and LRH-1 represses bile acid biosynthesis.

            Bile acids repress the transcription of cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in bile acid biosynthesis. Although bile acids activate the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the mechanism underlying bile acid-mediated repression of CYP7A1 remained unclear. We have used a potent, nonsteroidal FXR ligand to show that FXR induces expression of small heterodimer partner 1 (SHP-1), an atypical member of the nuclear receptor family that lacks a DNA-binding domain. SHP-1 represses expression of CYP7A1 by inhibiting the activity of liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1), an orphan nuclear receptor that is known to regulate CYP7A1 expression positively. This bile acid-activated regulatory cascade provides a molecular basis for the coordinate suppression of CYP7A1 and other genes involved in bile acid biosynthesis.
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              Endogenous bile acids are ligands for the nuclear receptor FXR/BAR.

              The major metabolic pathway for elimination of cholesterol is via conversion to bile acids. In addition to this metabolic function, bile acids also act as signaling molecules that negatively regulate their own biosynthesis. However, the precise nature of this signaling pathway has been elusive. We have isolated an endogenous biliary component (chenodeoxycholic acid) that selectively activates the orphan nuclear receptor, FXR. Structure-activity analysis defined a subset of related bile acid ligands that activate FXR and promote coactivator recruitment. Finally, we show that ligand-occupied FXR inhibits transactivation from the oxysterol receptor LXR alpha, a positive regulator of cholesterol degradation. We suggest that FXR (BAR) is the endogenous bile acid sensor and thus an important regulator of cholesterol homeostasis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                January 2006
                January 8 2006
                January 2006
                : 439
                : 7075
                : 484-489
                Article
                10.1038/nature04330
                16400329
                7ee26c5e-d772-4006-8c02-6353122ff2f7
                © 2006

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