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      Scarabaeinae dung beetles from Ecuador: a catalog, nomenclatural acts, and distribution records


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          The Ecuadorian territory is divided into four natural regions: the coastal lowlands, the Andean highlands, the Amazon basin, and the Galapagos Islands. Each of these regions has its own ecosystems and specific vegetation. The purpose of this work is to compile an updated catalog of the Scarabaeinae ( Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae ) of Ecuador that includes distributional data and several nomenclatural acts. We compiled data from 25 scientific collections, with the examination of 13,550 scarabaeines; additionally, 390 bibliographic references were reviewed for their taxonomic histories. The Scarabaeinae fauna from Ecuador is represented by 33 genera and 223 species, with 45 range-restricted species; 27 species were erroneously recorded from the country. The following nomenclatural acts are made: (A) two new status as valid species: Canthon ( Glaphyrocanthon) ohausi Balthasar, 1939, stat. n., and Deltochilum ( Calhyboma) arrowi Paulian, 1939 stat. n.; (B) one new synonym: Uroxys magnus Balthasar, 1940 = Uroxys latesulcatus Bates, 1891, syn. n.; (C) two revalidated names: Canthidium ( Canthidium) orbiculatum (Lucas, 1857) and Dichotomius ( Luederwaldtinia) fortepunctatus (Luederwaldt, 1923); and (D) ten lectotypes designated for: Choeridium orbiculatum Lucas, 1857; Choeridium cupreum Blanchard, 1846; Canthidium coerulescens Balthasar, 1939; Canthon angustatus Harold, 1867; Canthon angustatus ohausi Balthasar, 1939; Deltochilum tessellatum Bates, 1870; Pinotus fortepunctatus Luederwaldt, 1923; Pinotus globulus Felsche, 1901; Uroxys latesulcatus Bates, 1891; and Uroxys magnus Balthasar, 1940. The type specimens related to the new nomenclatural acts are illustrated and the maps of the geographical distribution of all species are provided.

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          Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

          Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species Ptilinus costatus Gyllenhal, 1827, designated herein) syn. nov. of Ptilinus Geoffroy, 1762 (Ptinidae), Paniscus Gistel, 1848 (type species Scarabaeus fasciatus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Trichius Fabricius, 1775 (Scarabaeidae), Phibalus Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela pubescens Linnaeus, 1758, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Omophlus Dejean, 1834 (Tenebrionidae). The following new replacement name is proposed: Gompeliina Bouchard, 2011 nom. nov. for Olotelina Báguena Corella, 1948 (Aderidae). Reversal of Precedence (Article 23.9) is used to conserve usage of the following names (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Perigonini Horn, 1881 nom. protectum over Trechicini Bates, 1873 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Anisodactylina Lacordaire, 1854 nom. protectum over Eurytrichina LeConte, 1848 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Smicronychini Seidlitz, 1891 nom. protectum over Desmorini LeConte, 1876 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Bagoinae Thomson, 1859 nom. protectum over Lyprinae Gistel 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Aterpina Lacordaire, 1863 nom. protectum over Heliomenina Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Naupactini Gistel, 1848 nom. protectum over Iphiini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Cleonini Schönherr, 1826 nom. protectum over Geomorini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Magdalidini Pascoe, 1870 nom. protectum over Scardamyctini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Agrypninae/-ini Candèze, 1857 nom. protecta over Adelocerinae/-ini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblita and Pangaurinae/-ini Gistel, 1856 nom. oblita (Elateridae), Prosternini Gistel, 1856 nom. protectum over Diacanthini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Elateridae), Calopodinae Costa, 1852 nom. protectum over Sparedrinae Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Oedemeridae), Adesmiini Lacordaire, 1859 nom. protectum over Macropodini Agassiz, 1846 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Bolitophagini Kirby, 1837 nom. protectum over Eledonini Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Throscidae Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Stereolidae Rafinesque, 1815 nom. oblitum (Throscidae) and Lophocaterini Crowson, 1964 over Lycoptini Casey, 1890 nom. oblitum (Trogossitidae); Monotoma Herbst, 1799 nom. protectum over Monotoma Panzer, 1792 nom. oblitum (Monotomidae); Pediacus Shuckard, 1839 nom. protectum over Biophloeus Dejean, 1835 nom. oblitum (Cucujidae), Pachypus Dejean, 1821 nom. protectum over Pachypus Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae), Sparrmannia Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Leocaeta Dejean, 1833 nom. oblitum and Cephalotrichia Hope, 1837 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae).
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            A multilingual key to the genera and subgenera of the subfamily Scarabaeinae of the New World (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

            Presented is a multilingual (English, Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and French) key to the 119 currently recognized genera and subgenera of scarabaeine dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) occurring in the New World. Also included are illustrations of representative species of all taxa included in the key as well as supplementary references to studies at the species level.
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              Conspectus insectorum coleopterorum, quae in Republica Peruana observata sunt.


                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                28 February 2019
                : 826
                : 1-343
                [1 ] Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Museo de Zoología MUTPL, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano Alto s/n C.P. 11 01 608, Loja, Ecuador Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja Loja Ecuador
                [2 ] Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Biologia e Zoologia. Av. Fernando Correa da Costa, 2367 Boa Esperança, Cuiabá Mato Grosso, 78060-900, Brazil Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso Cuiabá Mato Grosso Brazil
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: William Chamorro ( william.chamorro@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: A. Frolov

                Author information
                26488 urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:a20fe923-802f-5762-8699-10632c87b82f urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B1550A3A-E547-4450-9A44-BC4366D5E110
                William Chamorro, Diego Marin-Armijos, Angélico senjo, Fernando Z. Vaz-De-Mello

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                : 8 May 2018
                : 24 December 2018
                Catalogues and Checklists

                Animal science & Zoology
                biomas,dung beetles,neotropical region,taxonomic historic,type specimens,animalia,coleoptera,scarabaeidae


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