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      Fetal Adiponectin and Resistin in Correlation with Birth Weight Difference in Monozygotic Twins with Discordant Growth

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          Background: Various studies have demonstrated an increased risk for adult diseases in newborns born small-for-gestational-age (SGA). Adiponectin and resistin can be detected in cord blood and are suggested to affect insulin resistance (IR). This might represent a link between metabolic syndrome and SGA birth. Study Design: We investigated the relationship between the adipocytokines and inter-twin birth weight (BW) difference of 31 monozygotic twins with twin-twin transfusion syndrome; in 14 twin pairs BW difference was >15% (1 SGA twin, 1 appropriate-for-gestational-age, AGA, twin). Results: BW and length of all patients were positively related to adiponectin (r = 0.57; p < 0.0001; r = 0.47; p < 0.0001) and to resistin (r = 0.31; p < 0.01; r = 0.35; p < 0.01). In 71% (10/14), the SGA twins showed lower adiponectin concentrations than their AGA co-twins (only 6/14 for resistin). To correct for gestational age we calculated the relationship between the intrapair differences (Δ) of BW and Δ of the hormones. We found ΔBW positively correlated with adiponectin (r = 0.55; p < 0.001) but not with resistin (r = 0.22; p = 0.2). Δadiponectin was positively correlated with Δresistin (r = 0.45; p < 0.01). Conclusion: These data demonstrate that adiponectin and resistin levels are associated with BW with only adiponectin levels being reduced in SGA children independently of gestational age. Prenatally different metabolic status between the twins might predispose the SGA twin to develop IR later in life.

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          Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia (syndrome X): relation to reduced fetal growth

          Two follow-up studies were carried out to determine whether lower birthweight is related to the occurrence of syndrome X-Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. The first study included 407 men born in Hertfordshire, England between 1920 and 1930 whose weights at birth and at 1 year of age had been recorded by health visitors. The second study included 266 men and women born in Preston, UK, between 1935 and 1943 whose size at birth had been measured in detail. The prevalence of syndrome X fell progressively in both men and women, from those who had the lowest to those who had the highest birthweights. Of 64-year-old men whose birthweights were 2.95 kg (6.5 pounds) or less, 22% had syndrome X. Their risk of developing syndrome X was more than 10 times greater than that of men whose birthweights were more than 4.31 kg (9.5 pounds). The association between syndrome X and low birthweight was independent of duration of gestation and of possible confounding variables including cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and social class currently or at birth. In addition to low birthweight, subjects with syndrome X had small head circumference and low ponderal index at birth, and low weight and below-average dental eruption at 1 year of age. It is concluded that Type 2 diabetes and hypertension have a common origin in sub-optimal development in utero, and that syndrome X should perhaps be re-named "the small-baby syndrome".
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            Plasma resistin, adiponectin and leptin levels in lean and obese subjects: correlations with insulin resistance.

            Adipose tIssue regulates insulin sensitivity via the circulating adipocytokines, leptin, resistin and adiponectin. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin in lean and obese subjects and determine the relationship between circulating adipocytokines and insulin resistance. We examined plasma levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin in 17 lean subjects with a mean body mass index (BMI) of approximately 23 and 34 non-diabetic obese individuals with a mean BMI approximately 33. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment ratio (HOMA-R) formula derived from fasting insulin and glucose levels. Resistin levels were not significantly different between the two groups but were significantly higher in women compared with men, 35.4+/-6.5 (s.e.) vs 15.4+/-2.9 microg/L, P<0.01. Resistin did not correlate with BMI but did significantly correlate with HOMA-R, P<0.01, and this correlation remained significant after adjustment for gender and BMI. Adiponectin levels were significantly lower in obese compared with lean subjects, P<0.005, and higher in women, P<0.001, but showed no significant correlation with HOMA-R. Leptin levels were significantly higher in obese subjects and women and correlated with HOMA-R and resistin. In this small group of patients we demonstrated that insulin resistance correlated most strongly with leptin levels. A significant correlation between resistin levels and insulin resistance was also observed. Although a similar trend was apparent for adiponectin, the correlation with insulin resistance did not achieve statistical significance.
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              Adipocytokines: leptin--the classical, resistin--the controversical, adiponectin--the promising, and more to come.

              With the growing prevalence of obesity, scientific interest in the biology of adipose tissue has been extended to the secretory products of adipocytes, since they are increasingly shown to affect several aspects in the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases. The cloning of the ob gene is consistent with this concept and suggests that body fat content in adult rodents is regulated by a negative feedback loop centred in the hypothalamus. In recent years, a number of additional signalling molecules secreted by adipose tissue have been discovered, commonly referred to as 'adipocytokines'. Among these, adiponectin is perhaps the most interesting and promising compound for the clinician since it has profound protective actions in the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adiponectin is low in obese subjects and, in particular, insulin-resistant patients. In contrast, resistin seems to be of greater relevance in relation to the immune stress response than in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. However, inflammatory processes have recently been connected with the development of atherosclerosis. Finally, little is known regarding the clinical relevance of visfatin. Recent research has revealed many functions of adipocytokines extending far beyond metabolism, such as immunity, cancer and bone formation. This report aims to review some of the recent topics of adipocytokine research that may be of particular importance.

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                December 2007
                25 September 2006
                : 69
                : 1
                : 37-44
                Departments of aPaediatrics, bNeonatology and cStatistics, University of Bonn, Bonn, and dDepartment of Obstetrics and Fetal Medicine, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
                111794 Horm Res 2008;69:37–44
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 39, Pages: 8
                Original Paper


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