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      Associations of Individual-Related and Job-Related Risk Factors with Nonfatal Occupational Injury in the Coal Workers of Shanxi Province: A Cross-Sectional Study


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          To assess the relationships between the risk factors and the incidence of nonfatal occupational injury of coal mine workers of Shanxi Province.


          A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2013 to December 2013, and 4319 workers were recruited from more than 200,000 coal mine employees who are exposed to continuous potential risk of occupational injuries by using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Trained interviewers having necessary medical knowledge conducted face-to-face interviews with the participants. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI).


          A total number of 3618 effective respondents were got from 4319 participants (83.77%) and the mean age of the participants was 41.5 years with the standard deviation of 8.65. Significant crude odds ratios were observed for all factors considered except for marital status, education, work duration, BMI, EPQ-RSC(P) scale and EPQ-RSC(L) scale. Results from multivariable logistic regression model showed significant adjusted odds ratios for risk factors including gender (female vs male 0.275, 0.094–0.800), age (≥55 vs ≤25yr 0.169, 0.032–0.900), work type (light physical labor vs heavy physical labor 0.504, 0.328–0.774), workplace (underground auxiliary vs underground front-line 0.595, 0.385–0.919), length of shiftwork experience (0~5yr vs no shift 2.075, 1.287–3.344 and ≥15yr vs no shift 2.076, 1.230–3.504) and EPQ-RSC(E) score (extraversion vs introversion 0.538, 0.334–0.867).


          Several risk factors of nonfatal occupational injury were identified including male, age, heavy physical labor, underground front-line, length of shiftwork experience and introversion. The coal mining enterprises should pay attention to controlling the hazards associated with frontline physical work. Workers’ behaviors, life styles and personality traits should also be considered, so that the enterprises could set achievable targets for workers and lessen the exposed period to the risky underground workstation.

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          Shift and night work and long working hours--a systematic review of safety implications.

          In order to devise effective preventive strategies, it is important to study workplace stressors that might increase the risk of workplace accidents - both affecting workers themselves as well as causing harm to third-parties. The aim of this report is to provide a systematic, updated overview and scientific review of empirical research regarding accidents in relation to long work hours and shift work, primarily based on epidemiological studies. The search for articles was part of a large review study on the effects of work hours on various health outcomes, safety, and performance. The search strategy included 5 international scientific databases, and nearly 7000 articles were initially identified using our search string. Following the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 443 publications were found and evaluated using a pre-defined scoring system. Of these, 43 concerned safety and accidents but only 14 were considered to be of high quality (total score 2 or 3 on a scale from 0-3) and therefore used for this study. Both shift work and long working hours present a substantial and well-documented detrimental effect on safety - all the studies that are included in this review have one or more significant findings in this respect. The trends are quite coherent although the increases in accident rates are mostly from 50% to 100%. In epidemiological terms, this may be seen as rather small differences. The use of such data is therefore only of importance if the accident incidence is high or if accidents may have large effects. The findings are most relevant to safety-critical activities such as the transport and health sectors. Work periods >8 hours carry an increased risk of accidents that cumulates, so that the increased risk of accidents at around 12 hours is twice the risk at 8 hours. Shift work including nights carries a substantial increased risk of accidents, whereas "pure" night work may bring some protection against this effect due to resynchronization. The evaluated studies give no clear indications of any age or gender being specifically susceptible or protected against the effects of work times scheduling on accident risk.
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            Emotional intelligence as a moderator in the stress-burnout relationship: a questionnaire study on nurses.

            To investigate inter-relationships between emotional intelligence (EI), work stress and burnout in a group of nurses in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The moderating effect of EI in the stress-burnout relationship and group differences (nurses working in different wards) in burnout were also investigated.
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              Nurse burnout and its association with occupational stress in a cross-sectional study in Shanghai.

              This paper is a report of a study investigating nurse burnout and its association with occupational stressors in Shanghai, China. Burnout is described as feelings of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Measuring burnout among nurses and its association with occupational stressors are important in providing appropriate intervention to reduce stress and burnout. In total, 527 nurses from 41 hospitals in Shanghai returned self-reported questionnaires in June 2008. Their burden of burnout was measured by the Chinese version of 'Maslach Burnout Inventory', and their stress by the Chinese version of 'job content questionnaire' and 'effort-reward imbalance questionnaire'. Most nurses (74·76%) had a Demand/Control ratio higher than 1 and 27·13% had an Effort/Reward ratio higher than 1. The nurses showed a high level of emotional exhaustion, moderate level of depersonalization, and low level of reduced personal accomplishment. Linear regression analyses showed higher burden of stress and burnout among nurses at younger age, or on shift duty or from higher grade hospitals. Both the job content questionnaire and effort-reward imbalance questionnaire models had good predictive powers of the nurses' burnout, especially the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire model is more powerful than the other in predicting two Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Nurses in Shanghai were suffering from high levels of burnout, which was strongly associated with work-related stress. Interventions in reducing occupational stress are needed to reduce the burden of burnout in Chinese nurses. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                31 July 2015
                : 10
                : 7
                [1 ]Department of Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China
                [2 ]Department of Health Statistics, Taiyuan Xinghualing District Food & Drug Administration, Taiyuan, China
                [3 ]Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of Datong Coal Mining Group, Taiyuan, China
                [4 ]Department of Urology, General Hospital of Datong Coal Mining Group, Taiyuan, China
                [5 ]Center for Postgraduate Education Innovation of Shanxi Province, Taiyuan, China
                University of New South Wales, AUSTRALIA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: TW JH CS NQ CW. Performed the experiments: NQ CW ST YC XL. Analyzed the data: YC ST. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: YC ST. Wrote the paper: YC JL.

                ‡These authors are co-first authors on this work.


                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 6, Pages: 13
                The study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81473073) URLs: ( http://www.nsfc.gov.cn/). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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