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      MOLECULAR DETECTION OF Leishmania IN PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES IN A CUTANEOUS AND VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS ENDEMIC AREA IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL Translated title: Detecção molecular de Leishmania spp. em flebotomíneos em área endêmica para leishmaniose tegumentar e visceral no nordeste do Brasil

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          Abstract

          Several phlebotomine sand fly species have been regarded as putative or proven vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania in Brazil, but data for the northeastern region remains incipient. In this study, a total of 600 phlebotomine sand flies were grouped in pools of 10 specimens each and tested by a Leishmania genus-specific PCR and by a PCR targeting Leishmania ( Leishmania) infantum. Fourteen out of 60 pools were positive by the genus-specific PCR, being five pools of L. migonei, seven of L. complexa, one of L. sordellii and one of L. naftalekatzi, which correspond to a minimal infection rate of 2.3% (14/600). Our results, associated with their known anthropophily and their abundance, suggest the participation of L. migonei and L. complexa as vectors of Leishmania in northeastern Brazil. Remarkably, this is the first time in this country that the detection of Leishmania DNA in L. sordellii and L. naftalekatzi has been reported, but future studies are necessary to better understand the significance of these findings.

          Translated abstract

          Vários flebotomíneos têm sido considerados como possíveis vetores suspeitos ou comprovados de parasitas do gênero Leishmania no Brasil, mas os dados para região nordeste continuam incipientes. Neste estudo, 600 flebotomíneos foram agrupados em grupos de 10 espécimes e testados por uma PCR específica para o gênero Leishmania e por outra PCR para Leishmania ( Leishmania) infantum. Quatorze dos 60 grupos foram positivos por PCR gênero-específica, sendo cinco de L. migonei, sete L. complexa , um de L. sordellii e um de L. naftalekatzi , o que corresponde a uma taxa mínima de infecção de 2,3% (14/600). Nossos resultados, associados à antropofilia e abundância dessas espécies, sugerem a participação de L. migonei e L. complexa como vetores de Leishmania no nordeste do Brasil. Notavelmente, a detecção de DNA de Leishmania em L. sordellii e L. naftalekatzi é relatada pela primeira vez no Brasil, mas futuros estudos são necessários para compreender melhor o significado desses achados.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Phlebotomine sandflies and the spreading of leishmaniases and other diseases of public health concern.

          Phlebotomine sandflies transmit pathogens that affect humans and animals worldwide. We review the roles of phlebotomines in the spreading of leishmaniases, sandfly fever, summer meningitis, vesicular stomatitis, Chandipura virus encephalitis and Carrión's disease. Among over 800 species of sandfly recorded, 98 are proven or suspected vectors of human leishmaniases; these include 42 Phlebotomus species in the Old World and 56 Lutzomyia species in the New World (all: Diptera: Psychodidae). Based on incrimination criteria, we provide an updated list of proven or suspected vector species by endemic country where data are available. Increases in sandfly diffusion and density resulting from increases in breeding sites and blood sources, and the interruption of vector control activities contribute to the spreading of leishmaniasis in the settings of human migration, deforestation, urbanization and conflict. In addition, climatic changes can be expected to affect the density and dispersion of sandflies. Phlebovirus infections and diseases are present in large areas of the Old World, especially in the Mediterranean subregion, in which virus diversity has proven to be higher than initially suspected. Vesiculovirus diseases are important to livestock and humans in the southeastern U.S.A. and Latin America, and represent emerging human threats in parts of India. Carrión's disease, formerly restricted to regions of elevated altitude in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia, has shown recent expansion to non-endemic areas of the Amazon basin. © 2012 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.
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            Proven and putative vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil: aspects of their biology and vectorial competence.

            The aim of the present review is to give relevant information on aspects of the biology and ecology, including the vectorial competence of Lutzomyia sand fly species suggested as vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. The disease, due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, has been registered in most municipalities in all the Brazilian states and its transmission is associated with more than one sand fly species in each geographical region. A variety of Leishmania species can be found in the Amazon basin, where different epidemiological chains have been detected with the participation of different phlebotomine vectors. Finally, a discussion is presented on some sand fly species found naturally infected by Leishmania, but for which there is as yet no evidence regarding their epidemiological importance.
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              Leishmania donovani: intraspecific polymorphisms of Sudanese isolates revealed by PCR-based analyses and DNA sequencing.

              Four polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approaches were used to analyze diversity within 23 Sudanese isolates of Leishmania donovani. Methods compared were fingerprinting with single nonspecific primers, restriction analysis of the amplified ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus, single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP), and sequencing of the ITS region. When PCR fingerprinting and restriction analysis of ITS were applied, highly similar fragment patterns were observed for all strains of L. donovani studied. The ITS1 locus gave five different SSCP profiles among the 23 Sudanese isolates, whereas the ITS2 locus was highly conserved with the exception of 1 isolate. Strains of L. donovani derived from other geographical areas were found to have different ITS2 patterns. SSCP analysis correlated well with results of DNA sequencing and confirmed that SSCP was able to detect genetic diversity at the level of a single nucleotide. SSCP had advantages over the other methods employed for investigation of sequence variation within the species L. donovani. There was no correlation between the form of clinical manifestation of the disease and the PCR fingerprinting, ITS-RFLP, or ITS-SSCP characteristics. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo
                Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo
                Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
                Instituto de Medicina Tropical
                0036-4665
                1678-9946
                Jul-Aug 2014
                Jul-Aug 2014
                : 56
                : 4
                : 357-360
                Affiliations
                [(1) ] Department of Immunology, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. E-mails: vanessa@ 123456cpqam.fiocruz.br lemos.pietra@ 123456gmail.com fs@ 123456cpqam.fiocruz.br filipe.vet@ 123456globo.com eduardoh@ 123456cpqam.fiocruz.br sinval@ 123456cpqam.fiocruz.br
                [(2) ] Department of Parasitology, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. E-mail: fabio@ 123456cpqam.fiocruz.br
                [(3) ] Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Bari, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Dr. Sinval Pinto Brandão Filho. Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Caixa Postal 7472, Av. Moraes Rego s/n, 50670-420 Recife, PE, Brasil. Phone: 55 81 2101-2562. E-mail: sinval@ 123456cpqam.fiocruz.br

                CONFLICT OF INTERESTS The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

                Article
                S0036-46652014000400015
                10.1590/S0036-46652014000400015
                4131824
                25076439

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 16, Pages: 4
                Funding
                This research was supported by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Pernambuco (FACEPE), APQ-0630-2.13/08.
                Categories
                Brief Communication

                phlebotomine sand flies, leishmania, transmission

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