Achieving broad immunity through vaccination is a cornerstone strategy for long‐term management of COVID‐19 infections, particularly the prevention of serious cases and hospitalizations. Evidence that vaccine‐induced immunity wanes over time points to the need for COVID‐19 booster vaccines, and maximum compliance is required to maintain population‐level immunity. Little is known of the correlates of intentions to receive booster vaccines among previously vaccinated individuals. The present study applied an integrated model to examine effects of beliefs from multiple social cognition theories alongside sets of generalized, stable beliefs on individuals' booster vaccine intentions. US residents ( N = 479) recruited from an online survey panel completed measures of social cognition constructs (attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and risk perceptions), generalized beliefs (vaccine hesitancy, political orientation, and free will beliefs), and COVID‐19 vaccine intentions. Social cognition constructs were related to booster vaccine intentions, with attitude and subjective norms exhibiting the largest effects. Effects of vaccine hesitancy, political orientation, and free will beliefs on intentions were mediated by the social cognition constructs, and only vaccine hesitancy had a small residual effect on intentions. Findings provide preliminary evidence that contributes to an evidence base of potential targets for intervention messages aimed at promoting booster vaccine intentions.