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      Evaluation of wound healing properties of bioactive aqueous fraction from Moringa oleifera Lam on experimentally induced diabetic animal model

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          Abstract

          Diabetic foot ulcer is a serious complication of diabetes, which affects a significant percentage (15%) of diabetics and up to 15%–24% of those affected may require amputation. Therefore, the economic burden of diabetic foot ulcers is enormous and is associated with high cost of treatment and prolongs hospitalization. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibacterial and in vivo wound healing activities of an aqueous fraction of Moringa oleifera on a diabetic condition. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out using agar well and tube dilution techniques. The in vivo study was conducted using six groups of animals that comprise of one normal and diabetic control group each, three treatment groups of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction, and a positive control group (1% w/w silver sulfadiazine). Rats were induced with diabetes using a combination of streptozotocin 65 and 150 mg/kg nicotinamide daily for 2 days, and excision wounds were created and treated with various doses (0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction) daily for 21 days. Biophysical, histological, and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results of the study revealed that aqueous fraction possessed antibacterial activity through inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli organisms. The topical application of aqueous fraction revealed enhancement of wound healing under sustained hyperglycemic condition for the duration of the experiment. This enhancement was achieved through decreased wound size, improved wound contraction, and tissue regeneration, as well as downregulation of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, and upregulation of an angiogenic marker vascular endothelial growth factor in wound tissue treated with various doses of aqueous fraction of M. oleifera. The findings suggest that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 active compound may accelerate wound healing in hyperglycemic condition.

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          Most cited references 57

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          Regulation of wound healing by growth factors and cytokines.

          Cutaneous wound healing is a complex process involving blood clotting, inflammation, new tissue formation, and finally tissue remodeling. It is well described at the histological level, but the genes that regulate skin repair have only partially been identified. Many experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated varied, but in most cases beneficial, effects of exogenous growth factors on the healing process. However, the roles played by endogenous growth factors have remained largely unclear. Initial approaches at addressing this question focused on the expression analysis of various growth factors, cytokines, and their receptors in different wound models, with first functional data being obtained by applying neutralizing antibodies to wounds. During the past few years, the availability of genetically modified mice has allowed elucidation of the function of various genes in the healing process, and these studies have shed light onto the role of growth factors, cytokines, and their downstream effectors in wound repair. This review summarizes the results of expression studies that have been performed in rodents, pigs, and humans to localize growth factors and their receptors in skin wounds. Most importantly, we also report on genetic studies addressing the functions of endogenous growth factors in the wound repair process.
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            Experimental NIDDM: development of a new model in adult rats administered streptozotocin and nicotinamide.

            We took advantage of the partial protection exerted by suitable dosages of nicotinamide against the beta-cytotoxic effect of streptozotocin (STZ) to create a new experimental diabetic syndrome in adult rats that appears closer to NIDDM than other available animal models with regard to insulin responsiveness to glucose and sulfonylureas. Among the various dosages of nicotinamide tested in 3-month-old Wistar rats (100-350 mg/kg body wt), the dosage of 230 mg/kg, given intraperitoneally 15 min before STZ administration (65 mg/kg i.v.) yielded a maximum of animals with moderate and stable nonfasting hyperglycemia (155 +/- 3 vs. 121 +/- 3 mg/dl in controls; P < 0.05) and 40% preservation of pancreatic insulin stores. We also evaluated beta-cell function both in vitro and in vivo 4-9 weeks after inducing diabetes. In the isolated perfused pancreas, insulin response to glucose elevation (5-11 mmol/l) was clearly present, although significantly reduced with respect to controls (P < 0.01). Moreover, the insulin response to tolbutamide (0.19 mmol/l) was similar to that observed in normal pancreases. Perfused pancreases from diabetic animals also exhibited a striking hypersensitivity to arginine infusion (7 mmol/l). In rats administered STZ plus nicotinamide, intravenous glucose tolerance tests revealed clear abnormalities in glucose tolerance and insulin responsiveness, which were interestingly reversed by tolbutamide administration (40 mg/kg i.v.). In conclusion, this novel NIDDM syndrome with reduced pancreatic insulin stores, which is similar to human NIDDM in that it has a significant response to glucose (although abnormal in kinetics) and preserved sensitivity to tolbutamide, may provide a particularly advantageous tool for pharmacological investigations of new insulinotropic agents.
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              IDF Diabetes Atlas

               F Aguiree,  A. Brown,  NH Cho (2013)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                24 May 2016
                : 10
                : 1715-1730
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory of Vaccine and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Serdang, Malaysia
                [2 ]Unit of Anatomy, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Serdang, Malaysia
                [3 ]Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Sharida Fakurazi, Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, Tel +60 3 8947 2331, Fax +60 3 8942 2341, Email sharida.fakurazi@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                dddt-10-1715
                10.2147/DDDT.S96968
                4887066
                27307703
                © 2016 Muhammad et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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