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Uso de organismos intermareales del litoral rocoso como bio-indicadores de deformación continental cosísmica en el centro sur de Chile Translated title: Use of rocky shore intertidal organisms as bioindicators of coseismic continental deformation in south central Chile

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      Abstract

      Resumen: El 27 de febrero de 2010, la zona centro-sur de Chile (ca., 34-39ºS) fue afectada por un terremoto de magnitud Mw= 8,8, localizándose el epicentro en Cobquecura (ca., 36ºS), causando un levantamiento continental en las costas más cercanas a la fosa (i.e., Península de Arauco e Isla Santa María) y subsidencia en áreas costeras localizadas al norte de esas costas (Región del Maule). En este estudio se evaluó la hipótesis de que independientemente del grupo taxonómico, los organismos bentónicos intermareales adheridos al sustrato pueden ser utilizados como indicadores de levantamiento cosísmico continental. La metodología consistió en medir la altura del límite superior de las bandas de distribución de cada especie sobre el nivel de marea baja, a lo largo de la costa afectada por el terremoto. El alga calcárea Lithothamnium sp., el mitílido Perumytilus purpuratus y las macroalgas Mazzaella laminarioides y Lessonia spicata, son organismos bentónicos apropiados para describir el levantamiento continental cosísmico. Se sugiere que en estudios tendientes a evaluar este tipo de procesos tectónicos, se utilice más de una especie para tener una visión completa de tal proceso a lo largo de gradientes de deformación continental. Esto ya que, parte importante de las especies bentónicas de la costa rocosa no tienen distribución continúa, por lo que el uso de una sola especie puede resultar en conclusiones con bajo nivel de generalización.

      Translated abstract

      Abstract: On February 27, 2010, the south central coast of Chile (ca., 34-39ºS) was affected by an earthquake magnitude Mw= 8,8, with the epicenter located offshore Cobquecura (ca., 36.29ºS). This earthquake originated continental uplift on that coastal areas closer to the trench between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates (i.e., Peninsula de Arauco and Isla Santa María) and subsidence along coastal areas located further north of that (the coast of the Maule Region), as well as in continental zones ordered in a west - east axis. In this study we tested the hypothesis that independent of the taxonomic group, the rocky shore sessile benthic organisms can be used as indicators of continental uplift. The methodology involved measurements of heights upper of distributional bands above the low tide level at the coast affected by the earthquake. The results show that the calcareous crustose algae Lithothamnium sp., the mytilid bivalve Perumytilus purpuratus and the macroalgae Mazzaella laminarioides and Lessonia spicata, are benthonic useful organisms to describe continental uplift, due to the fact that their vertical distributions after the earthquake follow the coastal deformation observed in the field. This allow to suggest that in studies aimed to evaluate this tectonic processes, more than a single species must be used in order to gain a full view of that along gradients of continental deformation. This due to the fact that a significant number of the benthic species of the rocky shore do not have continuous distribution; thus, to use a single species may well result in conclusions with low level of generalizations.

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      Most cited references 29

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      Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake.

      It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended.
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        Mechanism of the Chilean Earthquakes of May 21 and 22, 1960

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          Major Earthquakes of Chile: A Historical Survey, 1535-1960

           C. Lomnitz (2004)
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Valdivia Los Ríos orgnameUniversidad Austral de Chile orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias orgdiv2Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra Chile
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            revbiolmar
            Revista de biología marina y oceanografía
            Rev. biol. mar. oceanogr.
            Universidad de Valparaíso. Facultad de Ciencias del Mar (Valparaíso, , Chile )
            0718-1957
            April 2018
            : 53
            : 1
            : 61-73
            S0718-19572018000100061

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 31, Pages: 13
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            Product Information: SciELO Chile

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