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      Fractalkine and Its Receptor, CX3CR1, Upregulation in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Kidneys

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          Background: Fractalkine is induced on activated endothelial cells and promotes strong adhesion of T cells and monocytes via its receptor CX3CR1. In kidney, fractalkine expression might be induced by high shear stress and play an important role in prolonged glomerular diseases. We examined whether fractalkine and CX3CR1 upregulation are found in streptozotocin-induced diabetic kidneys. Methods: Diabetic rats were randomized to receive an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (temocapril), aminoguanidine or no treatment. Reverse transcription-competitive polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used. Results: At 4 weeks, fractalkine and CX3CR1 mRNA expression in diabetic kidneys increased compared with that in controls. Fractalkine staining in diabetic kidneys was clearly detected, along with glomerular capillary lumen and peritubular capillaries. A few CX3CR1 positive cell infiltration in diabetic glomeruli were found. Treatment with temocapril or aminoguanidine did not affect these changes. At 8 weeks, fractalkine and CX3CR1 mRNA expression in untreated diabetic kidneys markedly increased compared with that in controls. Membrane-anchored fractalkine protein expression in untreated diabetic rats also increased. The increased expression was suppressed by the treatment with temocapril and aminoguanidine. Increased CX3CR1-positive cell infiltration in diabetic glomeruli was also inhibited by both treatments. Some CX3CR1-positive cells were ED3 positive. Conclusions: Fractalkine and CX3CR1 upregulation were demonstrated in an early stage of diabetic kidney. These upregulation, as well as urinary albumin excretion, were suppressed by treatments with temocapril and aminoguanidine for 8 weeks. These findings suggest that fractalkine expression and CX3CR1-positive cell infiltration in diabetic kidneys might play an important role for progression of diabetic nephropathy.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Renal connective tissue growth factor induction in experimental diabetes is prevented by aminoguanidine.

          The aim of this study was to determine whether aminoguanidine (AG), an inhibitor of advanced glycation, prevents expression of the profibrotic cytokine, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), as well as accumulation of the previously reported CTGF-dependent matrix protein, fibronectin, in a model of experimental diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic animals were randomly allocated into groups receiving 32 wk of AG or vehicle. Diabetic rats showed increases in CTGF mRNA and protein expression as well as in advanced glycation end-product (AGE) and fibronectin immunostaining, compared with nondiabetic rats. In the diabetic kidney, the increase in CTGF gene and protein expression as well as expression of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin were prevented by AG. To further explore the relationship between AGEs and mesangial CTGF and fibronectin production, cultured human mesangial cells were exposed in vitro to soluble AGE-BSA and carboxymethyl lysine-BSA, and this led to induction of both CTGF and fibronectin. On the basis of our in vitro findings in mesangial cells linking AGEs to CTGF expression, the known prosclerotic effects of CTGF, and the ability of AG to attenuate mesangial expansion, it is postulated that the antifibrotic effects of AG in this animal model may be partially mediated by CTGF.
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            Urinary levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), and renal injuries in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy

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              Increased expression of endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) in afferent and glomerular endothelial cells is involved in glomerular hyperfiltration of diabetic nephropathy.

              The overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) is reported in the diabetic kidney and considered to be involved in glomerular hyperfiltration. The precise mechanism of NO production in the diabetic kidney is, however, not known. In this report, we compare the localization of endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) isoform expression in the kidney tissue of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and 5/6 nephrectomized rats and clarify the pivotal role of ecNOS for the glomerular hyperfiltration in the early stages of diabetic nephropathy. In diabetic rats, the diameters of afferent arterioles, the glomerular volume, creatinine clearance, and urinary NO2/NO3 were increased after the induction of diabetes. Efferent arterioles were, however, not altered. Insulin or L-NAME treatment returned the diameters of afferent arterioles, glomerular volume, creatinine clearance, and urinary NO2/NO3 to normal. The expression of ecNOS in afferent arterioles and glomeruli of diabetic rats increased during the early stages of the disease, but was not altered in efferent arterioles. Treatment with either insulin or L-NAME decreased ecNOS expression in afferent arterioles and in glomeruli. In contrast, the ecNOS expression was upregulated in both afferent and efferent arterioles and in the glomeruli of 5/6 nephrectomized rats, where the dilatation of afferent and efferent arterioles and glomerular enlargement were observed. Treatment with L-NAME ameliorated the ecNOS expression and dilatation of arterioles. We conclude that enhanced NO synthesis by ecNOS in afferent arterioles and glomerular endothelial cells in response to the hyperglycaemic state could cause preferential dilatation of afferent arterioles, which ultimately induces glomerular enlargement and glomerular hyperfiltration.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                May 2004
                17 November 2004
                : 97
                : 1
                : e17-e25
                Second Department of Internal Medicine, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japan
                77594 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2004;97:e17–e25
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 29, Pages: 1
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/77594
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