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      Characterization and analysis of CCR and CAD gene families at the whole-genome level for lignin synthesis of stone cells in pear ( Pyrus bretschneideri) fruit

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          The content of stone cells has significant effects on the flavour and quality of pear fruit. Previous research suggested that lignin deposition is closely related to stone cell formation. In the lignin biosynthetic pathway, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), dehydrogenase/reductase family members, catalyse the last two steps in monolignol synthesis. However, there is little knowledge of the characteristics of the CCR and CAD families in pear and their involvement in lignin synthesis of stone cells. In this study, 31 CCRs and 26 CADs were identified in the pear genome. Phylogenetic trees for CCRs and CADs were constructed; key amino acid residues were analysed, and three-dimensional structures were predicted. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), PbCAD2, PbCCR1, -2 and - 3 were identified as participating in lignin synthesis of stone cells in pear fruit. Subcellular localization analysis showed that the expressed proteins (PbCAD2, PbCCR1, -2 and -3) are found in the cytoplasm or at the cell membrane. These results reveal the evolutionary features of the CCR and CAD families in pear as well as the genes responsible for regulation of lignin synthesis and stone cell development in pear fruit.


          Summary: The characteristics of CCR and CAD families were systematically analyzed, and candidate members related to lignin synthesis and stone cell development were screened out in this study.

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          Most cited references 65

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                Author and article information

                Biol Open
                Biol Open
                Biology Open
                The Company of Biologists Ltd
                15 November 2017
                15 November 2017
                15 November 2017
                : 6
                : 11
                : 1602-1613
                [1 ]School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University , No. 130, Changjiang West Road, Hefei 230036, China
                [2 ]Horticultural Institute, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Hefei, Anhui 230031, China
                Author notes

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                []Author for correspondence ( ypcaiah@ )
                © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided that the original work is properly attributed.

                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China,;
                Award ID: 31640068
                Funded by: Anhui Agriculture University,;
                Award ID: 2017yjs-32
                Award ID: 201610364013
                Research Article


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