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      Unfinished business after five decades of ozone-layer science and policy

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          Abstract

          The Montreal Protocol has begun to heal the Antarctic ozone hole and avoided more global warming than any other treaty. Still, recent research shows that new unexpected emissions of several chlorofluorocarbons, carbon tetrachloride, and hydrofluorocarbons, are undermining the Protocol’s success. It is time for policymakers to plug the holes in the ozone hole treaty.

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          Most cited references16

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          The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate.

          The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is a landmark agreement that has successfully reduced the global production, consumption, and emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). ODSs are also greenhouse gases that contribute to the radiative forcing of climate change. Using historical ODSs emissions and scenarios of potential emissions, we show that the ODS contribution to radiative forcing most likely would have been much larger if the ODS link to stratospheric ozone depletion had not been recognized in 1974 and followed by a series of regulations. The climate protection already achieved by the Montreal Protocol alone is far larger than the reduction target of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Additional climate benefits that are significant compared with the Kyoto Protocol reduction target could be achieved by actions under the Montreal Protocol, by managing the emissions of substitute fluorocarbon gases and/or implementing alternative gases with lower global warming potentials.
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            An unexpected and persistent increase in global emissions of ozone-depleting CFC-11

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              Acceleration of global N2O emissions seen from two decades of atmospheric inversion

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                solos@MIT.EDU
                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2041-1723
                26 August 2020
                26 August 2020
                2020
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.116068.8, ISNI 0000 0001 2341 2786, Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, , Massachusetts Institute of Technology, ; Cambridge, MA 02139 USA
                [2 ]GRID grid.12082.39, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7590, Sussex Sustainability Research Programme, School of Global Studies, , University of Sussex, ; Falmer, BN1 9SL UK
                [3 ]GRID grid.47894.36, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8083, Departments of Chemistry and Atmospheric Science, , Colorado State University, ; Fort Collins, CO 80523 USA
                Article
                18052
                10.1038/s41467-020-18052-0
                7450078
                32848157
                7f2753ca-38e8-464c-980b-abb3362d548a
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100006919, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT);
                Funded by: VoLo Foundation
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100007235, Colorado State University (CSU);
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100000838, University of Sussex;
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                © The Author(s) 2020

                Uncategorized
                atmospheric science,environmental impact
                Uncategorized
                atmospheric science, environmental impact

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