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      Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors

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          Abstract

          Recent developments have greatly improved the sensitivity of optical sensors based on metal nanoparticle arrays and single nanoparticles. We introduce the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor and describe how its exquisite sensitivity to size, shape and environment can be harnessed to detect molecular binding events and changes in molecular conformation. We then describe recent progress in three areas representing the most significant challenges: pushing sensitivity towards the single-molecule detection limit, combining LSPR with complementary molecular identification techniques such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, and practical development of sensors and instrumentation for routine use and high-throughput detection. This review highlights several exceptionally promising research directions and discusses how diverse applications of plasmonic nanoparticles can be integrated in the near future.

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          Most cited references 105

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          Chemistry and properties of nanocrystals of different shapes.

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            Myosin V walks hand-over-hand: single fluorophore imaging with 1.5-nm localization.

            Myosin V is a dimeric molecular motor that moves processively on actin, with the center of mass moving approximately 37 nanometers for each adenosine triphosphate hydrolyzed. We have labeled myosin V with a single fluorophore at different positions in the light-chain domain and measured the step size with a standard deviation of <1.5 nanometers, with 0.5-second temporal resolution, and observation times of minutes. The step size alternates between 37 + 2x nm and 37 - 2x, where x is the distance along the direction of motion between the dye and the midpoint between the two heads. These results strongly support a hand-over-hand model of motility, not an inchworm model.
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              Nanoparticle-based bio-bar codes for the ultrasensitive detection of proteins.

              An ultrasensitive method for detecting protein analytes has been developed. The system relies on magnetic microparticle probes with antibodies that specifically bind a target of interest [prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in this case] and nanoparticle probes that are encoded with DNA that is unique to the protein target of interest and antibodies that can sandwich the target captured by the microparticle probes. Magnetic separation of the complexed probes and target followed by dehybridization of the oligonucleotides on the nanoparticle probe surface allows the determination of the presence of the target protein by identifying the oligonucleotide sequence released from the nanoparticle probe. Because the nanoparticle probe carries with it a large number of oligonucleotides per protein binding event, there is substantial amplification and PSA can be detected at 30 attomolar concentration. Alternatively, a polymerase chain reaction on the oligonucleotide bar codes can boost the sensitivity to 3 attomolar. Comparable clinically accepted conventional assays for detecting the same target have sensitivity limits of approximately 3 picomdar, six orders of magnitude less sensitive than what is observed with this method.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Materials
                Nature Mater
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1476-1122
                1476-4660
                June 2008
                June 2008
                : 7
                : 6
                : 442-453
                Article
                10.1038/nmat2162
                18497851
                © 2008

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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