Objective To understand the current situation of sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of young children in kindergarten, based on the framework of comprehensive sexuality education.
Methods Totally 354 children between the ages of 3-6 from two kindergartens in Changping District, Beijing, participated in one-to-one interviews. There were 164 girls and 190 boys.
Results In the dimension of physical development, no child knew the scientific name of reproductive organs. In the dimension of social emotion, 44.07% of children could express love to their friends, and 40.68% of children could express their refusal when they were unwilling. In the dimension of sexual health, well-being and sexual rights, 81.92% of children knew that they couldn’t touch other people’s genitals, and 54.80% of children could at least name one way to protect themselves when facing sexual abuse. In the dimension of gender equality, 33.62% and 28.53% of children had gender stereotypes in toy selection and career choice, 66.38% of children thought that boys are as smart as girls. In the dimension of pregnancy and birth, 78.53% of children knew where babies come from and 26.27% of children think parenthood doesn’t directly lead to happiness. Sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of children had statistically significant difference in different grades ( P<0.05).
Conclusion Children already have good understanding about pregnancy, childbirth and prevention of sexual abuse. In the future, sexuality education in school and family need to promote physical cognition and gender equality education.
【摘要】 目的 了解幼儿性知识、态度和行为状况, 为指导幼儿园和家庭性教育的实践提供参考。 方法 整群选取 北京市昌平区 2 所幼儿园的 354 名 3~6 岁幼儿, 其中女童 164 名, 男童190 名, 采用一对一访谈形式进行调查。 结果 在 身体发育维度, 没有幼儿知道生殖器官的科学名称;社会情感和情绪维度, 44.07% 的幼儿能够向好友表达爱, 40.68% 的幼 儿知道自己不愿意时可以表达拒绝;在性健康、福祉和性权利维度, 81.92% 的幼儿知道不能触摸他人的生殖器官, 54.80% 的幼儿能够说出至少 1 种面对性侵害的自我保护方法;在性别平等维度, 33.62% 和28.53%的幼儿在玩具选择和职业选择 上完全具有性别刻板印象, 66.38% 的幼儿认为男孩女孩一样聪明;在怀孕和生育维度, 有 78.53%幼儿知道宝宝来自哪里, 26.27% 的幼儿认为无论一个家庭是否有宝宝, 家庭都可以幸福。幼儿的性知识、态度和行为的年级差异均有统计学意义 ( P 值均<0.05)。 结论 幼儿对怀孕和生育、预防性侵害相关内容掌握程度更好。幼儿早期家庭性教育和幼儿园性教育 需要加强身体认知和性别平等教育。