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      SEROPREVALENCE OF Toxoplasma gondii (Nicole & Manceaux, 1909) AND RETROVIRAL STATUS OF CLIENT-OWNED PET CATS ( Felis catus , Linnaeus, 1758) IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL Translated title: Soroprevalência da infecção por Toxoplasma gondii (Nicole & Manceaux, 1909) e a infecção por retrovírus em população urbana de gatos domésticos ( Felis catus, Linnaeus, 1758) no Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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          Abstract

          Cats, as definitive host, play an important role in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. This study aimed to establish the seroprevalence of anti- T. gondii immunoglobulins G and M, and determine the frequency of oocysts in the feces of the domestic cat population in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also aimed to study the association between T. gondii infection and age, sex, breed, lifestyle, diet and retroviral infection. A total of 108 cats were included in the study and fecal samples of 54 of those cats were obtained. Only 5.6% of the cats were seropositive for anti- T. gondii immunoglobulins using the indirect hemagglutination test. None of the 54 cats presented oocysts in their fecal samples. Although not statistically significant, males, mixed-breed, free-roaming and cats aged two years and older were found to be more exposed. Age, lifestyle and the use of litter boxes were found to play an important role as risk factors. Anemia and retroviral infections were independent of T. gondii infection. No antibodies were detected in the majority of cats (94.4%), indicating that those cats had never been exposed to the parasite and, therefore, once infected, they could present the risk of shedding large numbers of oocysts into the environment.

          Translated abstract

          Os gatos, como hospedeiros definitivos, apresentam um papel fundamental na transmissão do Toxoplasma gondii. Nosso estudo teve como objetivo determinar a presença de imunoglobulinas G e M anti- T. gondii, e a frequência de oocistos nas fezes de uma população de gatos domésticos do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Objetivou-se ainda estudar a associação da infecção por T. gondii com a idade, sexo, raça, estilo de vida, dieta e infecção por retrovírus. Um total de 108 gatos foi incluído no estudo e 54 amostras de fezes foram obtidas desses animais. Somente 5,6% dos gatos foram sororreagentes para T. gondii , utilizando-se o teste de hemaglutinação indireta. Nenhum dos 54 gatos apresentou oocistos em suas amostras fecais. Embora sem comprovação estatística, machos, sem raça definida, com acesso livre às ruas e gatos com mais de dois anos de idade tenderam a ser mais expostos ao parasito. Idade, estilo de vida e uso de caixa de areia foram considerados importantes fatores de risco. Anemia e infecção por retrovírus não apresentaram relação com infecção por T. gondii . Não foram detectados anticorpos na maioria dos gatos (94,4%), indicando que esses gatos nunca foram expostos ao parasito e que, se infectados, poderão eliminar grande número de oocistos no ambiente.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Laboratory diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection and toxoplasmosis.

           J Montoya (2002)
          For the past 40 years, the Toxoplasma Serology Laboratory at the Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute (TSL-PAMFRI) has been dedicated to the laboratory diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection and toxoplasmosis. TSL-PAMFRI is the "brain child" of Jack S. Remington. Jack's ceaseless devotion to objectivity and uncompromising excellence has made TSL-PAMFRI the Toxoplasma reference laboratory for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Food and Drug Administration, and health care providers and clinical laboratories in the United States and other countries. Jack's leadership and vision created, defined, and significantly contributed to the development of laboratory methods for the diagnosis of the infection and diseases caused by T. gondii. A summary of the laboratory tests currently available at TSL-PAMFRI for the diagnosis of infection and disease caused by the parasite is presented here.
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            Toxoplasma gondii in cats: fecal stages identified as coccidian oocysts.

            Isospora-type oocysts were excreted by cats following the ingestion of Toxoplasma fromn infected mice. Oocysts appeared 3 to 5 days after cyst. were ingested and 8 to 10 days after trophozoites were ingested, and also 21 to 24 days after the administration of infective fecal suspensions from cats. A close quanititative and biologic correlation between oocysts and Toxoplasma infectivity of the feces was observed which could not be separated by density gradient centrifugation and filtration methods. Toxoplasma is an intestinal coccidian of cats which is fecally spread. It has evolved to multiply in brain and muscle and in other species, making it possible for carnivorism to become another means of transmission.
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              Toxoplasma gondii spreading in an urban area evaluated by seroprevalence in free-living cats and dogs.

              Infection by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii is widely prevalent in humans and animals throughout the world. Transmission takes place mainly by ingestion of raw or undercooked meat that contains parasite cysts or by ingestion of oocysts excreted in cat faeces, which can contaminate water and raw vegetables. The incidence of toxoplasmosis in urban areas can thus be also related to environmental contamination with oocysts. A direct measure of this environmental contamination by oocyst counting is unfeasible for technical reasons. An interesting alternative for measuring T. gondii urban spreading is the seroprevalence in free-living urban animals, used as sentinels, once they are exposed to similar risks of Toxoplasma infection-like humans. With this aim, we tested serum samples from stray cats and dogs for antibodies to T. gondii by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 40% (40 of 100) of the cats, less than the 50.5% (101 of 200) found in dogs by ELISA (P < 0.05). Haemagglutination showed low resolution and concordance, precluding their use for diagnosis of T. gondii infection compared with ELISA. The prevalence of T. gondii was lower among stray cats probably due to their selective alimentary habits and lower water and food intake. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in stray dogs and cats could be an indirect indicator of the parasite spreading in urban areas.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo
                Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo
                Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
                Instituto de Medicina Tropical
                0036-4665
                1678-9946
                May-Jun 2014
                May-Jun 2014
                : 56
                : 3
                : 201-203
                Affiliations
                [(1) ] Universidade Federal Fluminense, Faculdade de Veterinária, R. Vital Brazil Filho 64, Niterói, RJ, Brazil
                [(2) ] Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto Biomédico, R. Ernani Melo 101, Niterói, RJ, Brazil
                [(3) ] Universidade Castelo Branco, Av. Brasil 9727, Penha, RJ, Brazil
                [(4) ] Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Av. Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, RJ, Brazil
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Bethânia Ferreira Bastos. Tel.: 55 21 79126111, Email: bfbastos@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                10.1590/S0036-46652014000300004
                4085871
                24878997

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, References: 22, Pages: 3
                Categories
                Toxoplasmosis

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