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      Prevalence of COVID-19 Pandemic, Self-Esteem and Its Effect on Depression Among University Students in Saudi Arabia


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          Background and Aims

          University students are commonly identified as susceptible, suffering from higher anxiety, stress, and depression than the overall population. During the Corona Virus Disease pandemic (COVID), education was shifted to the virtual learning environment. Students' ambiguity regarding academic accomplishment, imminent careers, changes in social life, and other concerns all these factors played a role in amplifying their stress levels, anxiety, and depression worldwide. This study investigates university students' self-esteem and depressions after they have been online learning for over 1 year due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia.


          For this research, an adapted questionnaire of Rosenberg (Self-Esteem Scale) and Zung (Self-Rating Depression Scale) was used to get the responses of the participants of public and private universities in Saudi Arabia during March-April 2021. We received a total of 151 valid responses from respondents. For data analysis, we used descriptive statistics, ANOVA, multiple regression and binary logistic regression.


          The results showed that 75% of the students experienced different levels of depressions, with half (37.5%) having moderate to extreme levels of depression. A total of 41% of students experienced low self-esteem (38% females and 45% males). The regression results indicated depressive symptoms for low self-esteem. Furthermore, results of logistic regression showed that high self-esteem reduces the chances of getting depressive symptoms by 17%. The depressive symptoms were higher in female students than their male counterparts; furthermore, males experienced depressive symptoms less than females by 38%.


          Based on the current research results, it is concluded that the presence of the COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically increased the depressive symptoms in students, especially in female students. The findings suggested instant consideration and support for students. It is also suggested to the quest for potential managing policies that have been known and effective during the pandemic. Moreover, training should be provided for students to shift their educational experience mindset to an adaptive mindset, which can help them adapt to the new ways of learning and education.

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          Most cited references56

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          The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China

          Highlights • Methods of guiding students to effectively and appropriately regulate their emotions during public health emergencies and avoid losses caused by crisis events have become an urgent problem for colleges and universities. Therefore, we investigated and analyzed the mental health status of college students during the epidemic for the following purposes. (1) To evaluate the mental situation of college students during the epidemic; (2) to provide a theoretical basis for psychological interventions with college students; and (3) to provide a basis for the promulgation of national and governmental policies.
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            Using social and behavioural science to support COVID-19 pandemic response

            The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive global health crisis. Because the crisis requires large-scale behaviour change and places significant psychological burdens on individuals, insights from the social and behavioural sciences can be used to help align human behaviour with the recommendations of epidemiologists and public health experts. Here we discuss evidence from a selection of research topics relevant to pandemics, including work on navigating threats, social and cultural influences on behaviour, science communication, moral decision-making, leadership, and stress and coping. In each section, we note the nature and quality of prior research, including uncertainty and unsettled issues. We identify several insights for effective response to the COVID-19 pandemic and highlight important gaps researchers should move quickly to fill in the coming weeks and months.
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              Estimating the effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions on COVID-19 in Europe

              Following the detection of the new coronavirus1 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its spread outside of China, Europe has experienced large epidemics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In response, many European countries have implemented non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as the closure of schools and national lockdowns. Here we study the effect of major interventions across 11 European countries for the period from the start of the COVID-19 epidemics in February 2020 until 4 May 2020, when lockdowns started to be lifted. Our model calculates backwards from observed deaths to estimate transmission that occurred several weeks previously, allowing for the time lag between infection and death. We use partial pooling of information between countries, with both individual and shared effects on the time-varying reproduction number (Rt). Pooling allows for more information to be used, helps to overcome idiosyncrasies in the data and enables more-timely estimates. Our model relies on fixed estimates of some epidemiological parameters (such as the infection fatality rate), does not include importation or subnational variation and assumes that changes in Rt are an immediate response to interventions rather than gradual changes in behaviour. Amidst the ongoing pandemic, we rely on death data that are incomplete, show systematic biases in reporting and are subject to future consolidation. We estimate that-for all of the countries we consider here-current interventions have been sufficient to drive Rt below 1 (probability Rt < 1.0 is greater than 99%) and achieve control of the epidemic. We estimate that across all 11 countries combined, between 12 and 15 million individuals were infected with SARS-CoV-2 up to 4 May 2020, representing between 3.2% and 4.0% of the population. Our results show that major non-pharmaceutical interventions-and lockdowns in particular-have had a large effect on reducing transmission. Continued intervention should be considered to keep transmission of SARS-CoV-2 under control.

                Author and article information

                Front Public Health
                Front Public Health
                Front. Public Health
                Frontiers in Public Health
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                08 February 2022
                08 February 2022
                : 10
                : 836688
                [1] 1Department of Mathematics and Sciences, College of Humanities and Sciences, Prince Sultan University , Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [2] 2Department of Statistics, University of Science and Technology , Bannu, Pakistan
                [3] 3Department of Computer Science, College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud University , Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [4] 4Department of General Studies-Psychology, College of Humanities and Sciences, Prince Sultan University , Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [5] 5Department Global Health Economics and Policy, University of Kragujevac , Kragujevac, Serbia
                [6] 6Department of Comparative Economics Studies, Hosei University Faculty of Economics , Tokyo, Japan
                Author notes

                Edited by: Gulap Shahzada, University of Science and Technology Bannu, Pakistan

                Reviewed by: Zafar Khan, Gomal University, Pakistan; Javed Mustafa, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Pakistan

                *Correspondence: Fatima M. Azmi fazmi@ 123456psu.edu.sa

                This article was submitted to Public Mental Health, a section of the journal Frontiers in Public Health

                Copyright © 2022 Azmi, Khan, Azmi, Yaswi and Jakovljevic.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 21 December 2021
                : 03 January 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 5, Equations: 0, References: 57, Pages: 8, Words: 6698
                Public Health
                Original Research

                covid-19,saudi arabia,rosenberg self-esteem scale,zung self-rating depression scale,university students,depression,economic crisis


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