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      Lung tumor in a young African American patient with sickle trait: Pieces of a puzzle

      , MD, , MD, , MD, , MD, , MD, , MD *

      CytoJournal

      Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd

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          Most cited references 21

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          INI1-deficient tumors: diagnostic features and molecular genetics.

          Significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular genetic alterations involved in sarcomagenesis. Cytogenetic and molecular studies have identified nonrandom genetic abnormalities, including tumor suppressor gene inactivation. Mutations, deletions, and other somatic alterations in the tumor suppressor gene INI1 (hSNF5; SMARCB1), which encodes a subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, were first described in the malignant rhabdoid tumor of infancy. Since then, INI1 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of additional tumor types including renal medullary carcinomas and epithelioid sarcomas and a subset of epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, myoepithelial carcinomas, and extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas. As varied as this group appears, they all show loss of INI1 protein expression, a propensity for rhabdoid cytomorphology, and sometimes other overlapping immunohistochemical and histologic findings. We will review the clinicopathologic features of these tumor types and emphasize the clinical utility of INI1 immunohistochemistry in differential diagnosis.
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            Renal medullary carcinoma. The seventh sickle cell nephropathy.

            Over the last 22 years, we have encountered 34 examples of a highly aggressive neoplasm with a microscopic morphology that is highly predictive of finding sickled erythrocytes in the tissue. With the exception of one patient, all are believed to have had sickle cell trait or, in one case, hemoglobin SC disease. These 33 patients are the subject of this report and, where their race was known, they were all blacks between the ages of 11 and 39 years. Between the ages of 11 and 24 years, males predominated by 3 to 1. Beyond age 24, however, the tumors occurred equally in men and women. The dominant tumor mass was in the medulla and ranged from 4 to 12 cm in diameter. Mean size was 7 cm; median, 6 cm. Peripheral satellites in the renal cortex and pelvic soft tissues, as well as venous and lymphatic invasion, were usually present. The lesions exhibited a reticular, yolk sac-like, or adenoid cystic appearance, often with poorly differentiated areas in a highly desmoplastic stroma admixed with neutrophils and usually marginated by lymphocytes. The tumors had usually metastasized when first discovered, and none was confined to the kidney at the time of nephrectomy. The mean duration of life after surgery was 15 weeks. These tumors probably arise in the calyceal epithelium in or near the renal papillae, the same site that produces the more familiar picture of unilateral hematuria in patients with sickle cell trait. We have concluded that renal medullary carcinoma represents another example of renal disease associated with sickle cell disorders. The other six are unilateral hematuria, papillary necrosis, nephrotic syndrome, renal infarction, inability to concentrate urine, and pyelonephritis.
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              Renal medullary carcinoma: clinical, pathologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic analysis with pathogenetic implications.

              To investigate the pathologic, clinical, and genetic features of renal medullary carcinomas (RMCs) in search of clues to their pathogenesis. We analyzed 40 RMCs for clinical features, for immunohistochemical expression using a panel of markers, and for genetic changes using comparative genomic hybridization. Patients presented at 5 to 32 years of age, and 82% were African American. All patients tested had sickle cell trait or disease. Seven patients presented with suspected renal abscess or urinary track infection without a clinically recognizable mass. Of the 15 tumors able to be analyzed, all were positive for epithelial markers CAM 5.2 and epithelial membrane antigen. All were negative for high-molecular-weight cytokeratin 34betaE12. Cytokeratins 7 and 20 and carcinoembryonic antigen were heterogeneous and variable. Ulex was focally positive in a minority of cases. Eight of 12 tumors showed significant positivity for TP53 protein (greater than 25% nuclear positivity). All tumor tested (n = 8) were strongly positive for vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia inducible factor. Of nine tumors analyzed for genetic gains and losses using comparative genomic hybridization, eight showed no changes and one showed loss of chromosome 22. Survival ranged from 2 weeks to 15 months (mean 4 months). These findings suggest that RMC is clinically and pathologically distinct from collecting duct carcinoma. The hypothesis that chronic medullary hypoxia secondary to hemoglobinopathy may be involved in the pathogenesis of RMC is suggested by strong vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia inducible factor expression and positivity for TP53.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Address: Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author
                Contributors
                Journal
                Cytojournal
                Cytojournal
                CJ
                CytoJournal
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                1742-6413
                2018
                27 August 2018
                : 15
                6118160 CJ-15-21 10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_57_17
                Copyright: © 2018 Mir, et al.; Licensee Cytopathology Foundation Inc.

                This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

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