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      Renal Transplantation in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Outcome and Prognostic Factors in 50 Cases from a Single Centre

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          Background. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Objectives. To analyze the outcome and prognostic factors of renal transplantation in patients with ESRD due to SLE from January 1986 to December 2013 in a single center. Results. Fifty renal transplantations were performed in 40 SLE patients (32 female (80%), mean age at transplantation 36 ± 10.4 years). The most frequent lupus nephropathy was type IV (72.2%). Graft failure occurred in a total of 15 (30%) transplantations and the causes of graft failure were chronic allograft nephropathy ( n = 12), acute rejection ( n = 2), and chronic humoral rejection (1). The death-censored graft survival rates were 93.9% at 1 year, 81.5% at 5 years, and 67.6% at the end of study. The presence of deceased donor allograft ( P = 0.007) and positive anti-HCV antibodies ( P = 0.001) negatively influence the survival of the renal transplant. The patient survival rate was 91.4% at the end of the study. Recurrence of lupus nephritis in renal allograft was observed in one patient. Conclusion. Renal transplantation is a good alternative for renal replacement therapy in patients with SLE. In our cohort, the presence of anti-HCV antibodies and the type of donor source were related to the development of graft failure.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Lupus nephritis: a critical review.

          Lupus nephritis remains one of the most severe manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis is an important step in identifying more targeted and less toxic therapeutic approaches. Substantial research has helped define the pathogenetic mechanisms of renal manifestations and, in particular, the complex role of type I interferons is increasingly recognized; new insights have been gained into the contribution of immune complexes containing endogenous RNA and DNA in triggering the production of type I interferons by dendritic cells via activation of endosomal toll-like receptors. At the same time, there have been considerable advances in the treatment of lupus nephritis. Corticosteroids have long been the cornerstone of therapy, and the addition of cyclophosphamide has contributed to renal function preservation in patients with severe proliferative glomerulonephritis, though at the cost of serious adverse events. More recently, in an effort to minimize drug toxicity and achieve equal effectiveness, other immunosuppressive agents, including mycophenolate mofetil, have been introduced. Herein, we provide a detailed review of the trials that established the equivalency of these agents in the induction and/or maintenance therapy of lupus nephritis, culminating in the recent publication of new treatment guidelines by the American College of Rheumatology. Although newer biologics have been approved and continue to be a focus of research, they have, for the most part, been relatively disappointing compared to the effectiveness of biologics in other autoimmune diseases. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for renal preservation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Effect of renal disease on the standardized mortality ratio and life expectancy of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

            To study the effect of renal disease on the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and life expectancy of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients whose diagnosis met ≥4 American College of Rheumatology criteria for SLE were longitudinally followed up from 1995 to 2011. The cumulative survival rate, SMR, and life expectancy were calculated, and the effect of renal involvement, histologic class of lupus nephritis, renal damage, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on these parameters was evaluated. Of the 694 SLE patients studied, 368 (53%) had renal disease, and the distribution of histologic classes (among 285 patients) was class I (1%), class II (6%), class III (19%), class IV (47%), class III/IV + class V (10%), and class V (16%). Renal damage was present in 79 patients (11%), and 24 (3%) developed ESRD. The age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality in SLE patients with renal disease, those with renal damage, and those with ESRD, as compared to those without, were 2.23 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.29-3.85), 3.59 (95% CI 2.20-5.87), and 9.20 (95% CI 4.92-17.2), respectively. Proliferative lupus nephritis (adjusted HR 2.28, 95% CI 1.22-4.24), but not the pure membranous type (adjusted HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.38-3.14), was associated with a significant increase in mortality. The age- and sex-adjusted SMRs of SLE patients without renal involvement, those with lupus nephritis, those with proliferative nephritis, those with pure membranous nephritis, those with renal damage, and those with ESRD were 4.8 (95% CI 2.8-7.5), 9.0 (95% CI 6.7-11.9), 9.8 (95% CI 6.5-14.1), 6.1 (95% CI 2.0-14.1), 14.0 (95% CI 9.1-20.5), and 63.1 (95% CI 33.6-108.0), respectively. The life expectancy of SLE patients with renal disease and those with renal damage was reduced by 15.1 years and 23.7 years, respectively, compared to the general population. The presence of renal disease, in particular proliferative nephritis causing renal insufficiency, significantly reduces the survival and life expectancy of SLE patients. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.
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              Systemic lupus erythematosus one disease or many?

              Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) characterizes by a variety of clinical manifestations and the presence of a wide profile of autoantibodies. This clinical and serological heterogeneity raised the question: is SLE a single disease with varied phenotypes, or a similar phenotype shared by different diseases with diverse pathogenic mechanisms? Herein we debate the clinical, genetic, hormonal and serological differences typically observed in SLE on the one hand, and the numerous similarities between subtypes of this disease on the other. Leading to the conclusion that SLE may be considered not as a single disease but rather as a single syndrome, which defines by a set of signs, symptoms, or phenomena that occur together and suggest a particular abnormality. Additionally, the accumulated knowledge on gene expression pathways, autoantibodies clusters, hormonal and environmental factors associated with SLE may allow a better classification of this syndrome and updating of SLE criteria. This may further allow targeted biologics and other therapies as well as "personalized medicine" to begin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                11 June 2014
                : 2014
                1Department of Autoimmune Diseases, Hospital Clínic, Villarroel 170, 08036 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
                2Unidad de Enfermedades Autoinmunes Sistémicas, Clínica Médica “C”, Hospital de Clínicas, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay
                3Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
                4Department of Immunology, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Juan-Manuel Anaya

                Copyright © 2014 Ernesto Cairoli et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional y Desarrollo
                Funded by: Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay
                Research Article


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