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      Identification and Characterization of GLP-1 Receptor-Expressing Cells Using a New Transgenic Mouse Model

      , , , , , , ,
      Diabetes
      American Diabetes Association

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          Abstract

          GLP-1 is an intestinal hormone with widespread actions on metabolism. Therapies based on GLP-1 are highly effective because they increase glucose-dependent insulin secretion in people with type 2 diabetes, but many reports suggest that GLP-1 has additional beneficial or, in some cases, potentially dangerous actions on other tissues, including the heart, vasculature, exocrine pancreas, liver, and central nervous system. Identifying which tissues express the GLP-1 receptor (GLP1R) is critical for the development of GLP-1-based therapies. Our objective was to use a method independent of GLP1R antibodies to identify and characterize the targets of GLP-1 in mice. Using newly generated glp1r-Cre mice crossed with fluorescent reporter strains, we show that major sites of glp1r expression include pancreatic β- and δ-cells, vascular smooth muscle, cardiac atrium, gastric antrum/pylorus, enteric neurones, and vagal and dorsal root ganglia. In the central nervous system, glp1r-fluorescent cells were abundant in the area postrema, arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, and ventromedial hypothalamus. Sporadic glp1r-fluorescent cells were found in pancreatic ducts. No glp1r-fluorescence was observed in ventricular cardiomyocytes. Enteric and vagal neurons positive for glp1r were activated by GLP-1 and may contribute to intestinal and central responses to locally released GLP-1, such as regulation of intestinal secretomotor activity and appetite.

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          Most cited references25

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          Cardioprotective and vasodilatory actions of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor are mediated through both glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor-dependent and -independent pathways.

          The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) is believed to mediate glucoregulatory and cardiovascular effects of the incretin hormone GLP-1(7-36) (GLP-1), which is rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) to GLP-1(9-36), a truncated metabolite generally thought to be inactive. Novel drugs for the treatment of diabetes include analogues of GLP-1 and inhibitors of DPP-4; however, the cardiovascular effects of distinct GLP-1 peptides have received limited attention. Here, we show that endothelium and cardiac and vascular myocytes express a functional GLP-1R as GLP-1 administration increased glucose uptake, cAMP and cGMP release, left ventricular developed pressure, and coronary flow in isolated mouse hearts. GLP-1 also increased functional recovery and cardiomyocyte viability after ischemia-reperfusion injury of isolated hearts and dilated preconstricted arteries from wild-type mice. Unexpectedly, many of these actions of GLP-1 were preserved in Glp1r(-/-) mice. Furthermore, GLP-1(9-36) administration during reperfusion reduced ischemic damage after ischemia-reperfusion and increased cGMP release, vasodilatation, and coronary flow in wild-type and Glp1r(-/-) mice, with modest effects on glucose uptake. Studies using a DPP-4-resistant GLP-1R agonist and inhibitors of DPP-4 and nitric oxide synthase showed that the effects of GLP-1(7-36) were partly mediated by GLP-1(9-36) through a nitric oxide synthase-requiring mechanism that is independent of the known GLP-1R. These data describe cardioprotective actions of GLP-1(7-36) mediated through the known GLP-1R and novel cardiac and vascular actions of GLP-1(7-36) and its metabolite GLP-1(9-36) independent of the known GLP-1R. Our data suggest that the extent to which GLP-1 is metabolized to GLP-1(9-36) may have functional implications in the cardiovascular system.
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            Glucose Sensing in L Cells: A Primary Cell Study

            Summary Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an enteric hormone that stimulates insulin secretion and improves glycaemia in type 2 diabetes. Although GLP-1-based treatments are clinically available, alternative strategies to increase endogenous GLP-1 release from L cells are hampered by our limited physiological understanding of this cell type. By generating transgenic mice with L cell-specific expression of a fluorescent protein, we studied the characteristics of primary L cells by electrophysiology, fluorescence calcium imaging, and expression analysis and show that single L cells are electrically excitable and glucose responsive. Sensitivity to tolbutamide and low-millimolar concentrations of glucose and α-methylglucopyranoside, assessed in single L cells and by hormone secretion from primary cultures, suggested that GLP-1 release is regulated by the activity of sodium glucose cotransporter 1 and ATP-sensitive K+ channels, consistent with their high expression levels in purified L cells by quantitative RT-PCR. These and other pathways identified using this approach will provide exciting opportunities for future physiological and therapeutic exploration.
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              Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is involved in learning and neuroprotection.

              Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut peptide that, together with its receptor, GLP-1R, is expressed in the brain. Here we show that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) GLP-1 and [Ser(2)]exendin(1-9) (HSEGTFTSD; homologous to a conserved domain in the glucagon/GLP-1 family) enhance associative and spatial learning through GLP-1R. [Ser(2)]exendin(1-9), but not GLP-1, is also active when administered peripherally. GLP-1R-deficient mice have a phenotype characterized by a learning deficit that is restored after hippocampal Glp1r gene transfer. In addition, rats overexpressing GLP-1R in the hippocampus show improved learning and memory. GLP-1R-deficient mice also have enhanced seizure severity and neuronal injury after kainate administration, with an intermediate phenotype in heterozygotes and phenotypic correction after Glp1r gene transfer in hippocampal somatic cells. Systemic administration of [Ser(2)]exendin(1-9) in wild-type animals prevents kainate-induced apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. Brain GLP-1R represents a promising new target for both cognitive-enhancing and neuroprotective agents.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes
                Diabetes
                American Diabetes Association
                0012-1797
                1939-327X
                March 20 2014
                April 01 2014
                December 02 2013
                April 01 2014
                : 63
                : 4
                : 1224-1233
                Article
                10.2337/db13-1440
                24296712
                7f5e6e07-b4cd-44de-a8b7-f000ea27e57c
                © 2014

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