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      Leptin Concentrations Are Elevated in Newborn Infants of Diabetic Mothers

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          Background: Infants of diabetic mothers have been characterized by macrosomia due to hyperinsulinism. A relation has been observed between circulating levels of leptin and the intrauterine growth pattern. Methods: We studied the leptin and insulin concentrations in the cord blood of 29 newborn infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes (iT1DM), 70 newborn infants of mothers with gestational diabetes and 105 newborn infants of nondiabetic mothers. Results: There were significant differences (p < 0.001) between the 3 groups with the highest leptin levels 24.9 µg/l (range 1.7–94.1) in infants of mothers with iT1DM and the second-highest levels 14.0 µg/l (range 2.6–74.9) in infants of mothers with gestational diabetes (iGDM), whereas the control infants had the lowest leptin levels 10.0 µg/l (range 0.10–45.9). Girls had higher leptin concentrations than boys among the iT1DM and control infants. The insulin concentrations were 18.1 mU/l (range 1.9–123.3), 6.1 mU/l (range 1.1–51.4) and 3.6 mU/l (range 0.5–21.5) in the 3 groups (p < 0.001), respectively. A significant correlation was observed between leptin and insulin concentrations in iGDM and control infants (r = 0.51; p < 0.001 and r = 0.25; p < 0.05). Both absolute and relative birth weights correlated with leptin levels in all 3 groups (r = 0.60, p = 0.01 and r = 0.51, p = 0.05 in iT1DM; r = 0.51 and 0.56, p < 0.001 in iGDM and r = 0.42 and 0.59, p < 0.001 in control infants). Conclusion: Our results confirm the relation between leptin concentrations and birth weight. They also suggest that leptin may be involved in the increased accumulation of adipose tissue characteristic of infants of diabetic mothers.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Design and synthesis of multi-haem proteins.

          A water-soluble, 62-residue, di-alpha-helical peptide has been synthesized which accommodates two bis-histidyl haem groups. The peptide assembles into a four-helix dimer with 2-fold symmetry and four parallel haems that closely resemble native haems in their spectral and electrochemical properties, including haem-haem redox interaction. This protein is an essential intermediate in the synthesis of molecular 'maquettes', a novel class of simplified versions of the metalloproteins involved in redox catalysis and in energy conversion in respiratory and photosynthetic electron transfer.
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            Overexpression of the obese (ob) gene in adipose tissue of human obese subjects.

            Obesity is accompanied by complications such as hypertension, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis, which in turn cause ischaemic heart disease, stroke and premature death. The underlying mechanisms behind imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that lead to obesity are still controversial. In most populations, obesity is more common among women than men and is a multifactorial phenotype, which may result from a complex network of genetic and nongenetic factors. The relative importance of genetic factors for obesity is under debate. Genome searches using polymorphic markers in inbred mice with phenotypes that result in extreme obesity and studies of human candidate genes are being performed in an attempt to identify genes that contribute to obesity. There is evidence that body weight is physiologically regulated and it has been postulated that the storage of fat may provide signals to the brain that the body is obese, which in turn may make the subject eat less and burn more fuel. One of the molecules that may be involved in such signalling is the obese (ob) gene product. Mutations in ob result in profound obesity and type II diabetes in mice. The mouse ob gene and its human homologue have been cloned and sequenced. The gene is expressed in adipose tissue and the product has features of a secreted protein. We have investigated human ob expression in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue obtained from non-obese and massively obese subjects using in situ hybridization histochemistry and report on overexpression in obese people.
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              Plasma Leptin Levels in Healthy Children and Adolescents: Dependence on Body Mass Index, Body Fat Mass, Gender, Pubertal Stage, and Testosterone

               W F Blum (1997)

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                05 October 2001
                : 55
                : 4
                : 185-190
                Departments of aPediatrics and bClinical Chemistry, University of Oulu, and cHospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Finland
                49993 Horm Res 2001;55:185–190
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, References: 34, Pages: 6
                Original Paper


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