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      Lasioglossum (Acanthalictus) dybowskii (Hymenoptera, Halictidae) newly recorded from South Korea, with a checklist of the genus Lasioglossum in Korean Peninsula

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      Journal of Hymenoptera Research

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Lasioglossum (Acanthalictus) dybowskii is recorded from South Korea for the first time. The species is redescribed, and drawings and photographs of taxonomically important characters are added. Bionomical data such as flight and flower records and habitat are reported. A checklist of the genus Lasioglossum in the Korean Peninsula is presented.

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          Phylogeny of halictine bees supports a shared origin of eusociality for Halictus and Lasioglossum (Apoidea: Anthophila: Halictidae).

          The halictid bees are excellent models for the study of social evolution because greater social diversity and plasticity are observed in the tribe Halictini than in any other comparable taxonomic group. We examine the evolutionary relationships within the subfamily Halictinae ("sweat bees") to investigate the origins of social behaviour within the tribe Halictini. We present a new phylogeny of the subfamily Halictinae based on three nuclear genes (elongation factor-1 alpha, wingless, and long-wavelength rhodopsin) and one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase 1) sequenced for 206 halictine bees. We use model-based character reconstruction to infer the probability of a shared eusocial ancestor for the genera Halictus and Lasioglossum, the two genera of Halictini which display eusociality. Our results suggest a high probability for a single origin of eusociality for these two genera, contradicting earlier views of separate origins within each taxon. Fossil-calibrated divergence estimates place this ancestor at approximately 35 million years ago, about 14 million years earlier than previous estimates of eusocial origins in the halictid bees. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Phylogeny of eusocial Lasioglossum reveals multiple losses of eusociality within a primitively eusocial clade of bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae).

            We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the species, species groups, and subgenera within the predominantly eusocial lineage of Lasioglossum (the Hemihalictus series) based on three protein coding genes: mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I, nuclear elongation factor 1alpha and long-wavelength rhodopsin. The entire data set consisted of 3421 aligned nucleotide sites, 854 of which were parsimony informative. Analyses by equal weights parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods yielded good resolution among the 53 taxa/populations, with strong bootstrap support and high posterior probabilities for most nodes. There was no significant incongruence among genes, and parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods yielded congruent results. We mapped social behavior onto the resulting tree for 42 of the taxa/populations to infer the likely history of social evolution within Lasioglossum. Our results indicate that eusociality had a single origin within Lasioglossum. Within the predominantly eusocial clade, however, there have been multiple (six) reversals from eusociality to solitary nesting, social polymorphism, or social parasitism, suggesting that these reversals may be more common in primitively eusocial Hymenoptera than previously anticipated. Our results support the view that eusociality is hard to evolve but easily lost. This conclusion is potentially important for understanding the early evolution of the advanced eusocial insects, such as ants, termites, and corbiculate bees.
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              Revision of the metallic species of Lasioglossum (Dialictus) in Canada (Hymenoptera, Halictidae, Halictini)

               JASON GIBBS (2010)
              The bee subgenus Dialictus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Lasioglossum) comprises the most commonly collected bees in North America and have the most diverse social systems of any equivalent group of insects. Despite their importance, as pollinators and as model organisms for studying the evolution of social behaviour, Dialictus remain one of the greatest challenges in bee taxonomy. A taxonomic revision of the metallic species of Canadian Dialictus has been completed which resolves many of the difficulties of these bees. Complete species descriptions with illustrations are provided for 84 metallic Dialictus in Canada along with keys to identify males and females. The following nineteen new species are described: Lasioglossum (Dialictus) abundipunctum new species, L. (D.) atwoodi new species, L. (D.) dashwoodi new species, L. (D.) ebmerellum new species, L. (D.) ephialtum new species, L. (D.) imbrex new species, L. (D.) knereri new species, L. (D.) lilliputense new species, L. (D.) macroprosopum new species, L. (D.) packeri new species, L. (D.) prasinogaster new species, L. (D.) reasbeckae new species, L. (D.) sablense new species, L. (D.) sandhousiellum new species, L. (D.) sheffieldi new species, L. (D.) sitocleptum new species, L. (D.) taylorae new species, L. (D.) timothyi new species, and L. (D.) yukonae Gibbs, new species. Lasioglossum (D.) mitchelli is proposed as a replacement name for L. atlanticum (Mitchell) due to secondary homonymy with Halictus interruptus atlanticus Cockerell, a junior subjective synonym of L. interruptum (Panzer).The following forty-three new synonymies are proposed: L. (D.) admirandum (Sandhouse) (= D. perspicuus Knerer and Atwood); L. (D.) albipenne (Robertson) (= Halictus palustris Robertson, = H. (Chloralictus) lactineus Sandhouse, = H. (C.) basilicus Sandhouse); L. (D.) albohirtum (Crawford) (= H. pilosellus Cockerell); L. (D.) brunneiventre (Crawford) (= H. pilosicaudus Cockerell); L. cattellae (Ellis) (=D. alternatus Mitchell); L. connexum (Cresson) (= H. (C.) politissi-mus Cockerell); L. (D.) cressonii (Robertson) (= D. delectatus Mitchell); L. floridanum (Robertson) (= D. intrepidus Mitchell); L. (D.) foveolatum (Robertson) (= D. supraclypeatus Mitchell); L. (D.) imitatum (Smith) (= H. (C.) insolitus Sandhouse, = D. lectus Mitchell); L. (D.) incompletum (Crawford) (= D. ornduffi Hurd); L. (D.) laevissimum (Smith) (= H. (C.) astutus Sandhouse, = H. (C.) abundus Sandhouse, = H. (C.) jamesae Cockerell, = H. (C.) phaceliarum Cockerell, = H. (C.) praepes Sandhouse, = D. solidaginis Mitchell, = H. (C.) tranquillus Sandhouse); L. (D.) lineatulum (Crawford) (= H. (C.) latus Sandhouse); L. (D.) nigroviride (Graenicher) (= H. (C.) richardsoni Cockerell); L. (D.) obscurum (Robertson) (= D. orbitatus Mitchell); L. (D.) occidentale (Crawford) (= D. theodori Crawford); L. (D). oceanicum (Cockerell) (= D. advertus Mitchell); L. (D.) pavoninum (Ellis) (= H. (C.) evestigatus Sandhouse, = H. (C.) pikei Sandhouse, = H. (C.) abietum Michener); L. (D.) perpunctatum (Ellis) (= D. highlandicus Mitchell, = D. junaluskensis Mitchell); L. (D.) sagax (Sandhouse) (= Halictus (C.) accentus Sandhouse); L. (D.) semibrunneum (Cockerell) (= Halictus oleosus Cockerell); L. (D.) semicaeruleum (Cockerell) (= H. pruinosiformis Crawford, = H. (C.) actuarius Sandhouse); L. (D.) subversans (Mitchell) (= D. perpunctatulus Knerer and Atwood); L. (D.) tenax (Sandhouse) (= H. (C.) meritus Sandhouse, = D. disabanci Knerer and Atwood); L. (D.) versans (Lovell) (= H. (C.) brevibasis Cockerell); L. (D.) versatum (Robertson) (= H. (C.) apertus Sandhouse, = H. (C.) genuinus Sandhouse, = H. subconnexus rohweri Ellis); L. (D.) zephyrum (Smith) (= H. (C.) academicus Sandhouse). Halictus (C.) unicus Sandhouse is again treated as a junior synonym of L. lineatulum. Eleven subgeneric names recently proposed by Pesenko are treated as synonymies of Dialictus. Some species names are used here in a sense different from those of most previous authors (e.g. H. nymphaearus, H. versatus). Names have often been misapplied in past usage sometimes subsuming multiple species. In some cases, even paratypes do not correspond to the same species as the name bearing type. The following three species are resurrected from synonymy: L. (D.) leucocomum (Lovell) new combinaton, L. (D.) oceanicum (Cockerell) new combination, and L. (D.) planatum. The species L. (D.) atriventre (Crawford) is considered a nomen dubium. The following twelve new records for Canada are reported: L. (D.) achilleae (Mitchell), L. (D.) brunneiventre (Crawford), L. (D.) callidum (Sandhouse), L. (D.) incompletum (Crawford), L. (D.) hudsoniellum (Cockerell), L. (D.) marinense (Michener), L. (D.) pacatum (Sandhouse), L. (D.) pallidellum (Ellis), L. (D.) punctatoventre (Crawford), L. (D). sagax (Sandhouse), L. (D.) weemsi (Mitchell) and L. (D.) zophops (Ellis). The Canadian records of two species, L. (D.) disparile (Cresson) and L. (D.) ceanothi (Mitchell), do not seem reliable and these species are not included in the revision. Two species, L. testaceum (Robertson) and L. rufulipes (Cockerell), are transferred from the L. (Dialictus) to L. (Evylaeus) sensu stricto.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                June 12 2014
                June 12 2014
                : 38
                : 141-153
                Article
                10.3897/jhr.38.7572
                © 2014
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