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      QUADAS-2: a revised tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies.

      Annals of internal medicine

      Bias (Epidemiology), Diagnosis, Evidence-Based Medicine, Humans, Patient Selection, Quality Control, Questionnaires, Reference Standards, Review Literature as Topic, Time Factors

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          Abstract

          In 2003, the QUADAS tool for systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy studies was developed. Experience, anecdotal reports, and feedback suggested areas for improvement; therefore, QUADAS-2 was developed. This tool comprises 4 domains: patient selection, index test, reference standard, and flow and timing. Each domain is assessed in terms of risk of bias, and the first 3 domains are also assessed in terms of concerns regarding applicability. Signalling questions are included to help judge risk of bias. The QUADAS-2 tool is applied in 4 phases: summarize the review question, tailor the tool and produce review-specific guidance, construct a flow diagram for the primary study, and judge bias and applicability. This tool will allow for more transparent rating of bias and applicability of primary diagnostic accuracy studies.

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          Journal
          22007046
          10.7326/0003-4819-155-8-201110180-00009

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