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      Protective Effect of Lemon Peel Extract on Oxidative Stress in H9c2 Rat Heart Cell Injury

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          Abstract

          Aim

          Lemon peel, a traditional Chinese medicine, was tested in this study for its novel application in inhibiting cellular oxidative stress, and the effect of lemon peel extract (LPE) on protecting H9c2 rat heart cells from oxidative stress was investigated.

          Methods

          The scavenging effects of LPE on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radicals were measured in extracellular experiments. The 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolinyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-h-tetrazolylammonium bromide (MTT) assay was used to detect the cell survival rate. The cell supernatant and intracellular oxidation-related indicators were detected by a kit, and the mRNA expression in H9c2 cells was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The chemical substances of LPE were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

          Results

          The results showed that LPE exhibited better DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging abilities than vitamin C. Compared with the cells in the normal state (control group), the cell survival rate in the model group decreased, and the level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increased, the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) decreased, and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased. Compared with the control group, the expression of Bcl-2-related X protein (Bax), caspase-3, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the model group was increased, and the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) was reduced. Compared with the model group, LPE treatment improved the cell survival rate, reduced the levels of LDH and MDA, increased the levels of SOD, CAT, and GSH, downregulated the expression of Bax, caspase-3, Nrf2 and HO-1, and upregulated the expression of Bcl-2. The composition analysis showed that LPE contained catechin, rutin, naringin, quercetin, and hesperidin.

          Conclusion

          The results indicated that LPE could protect H9c2 cells from oxidative stress through five active components. LPE has the potential to be developed into natural medicine or health food for the inhibition of cell oxidative damage.

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          Most cited references 42

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          A critical role for PPARalpha-mediated lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy: modulation by dietary fat content.

          To explore the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-mediated derangements in myocardial metabolism in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy, insulinopenic mice with PPARalpha deficiency (PPARalpha(-/-)) or cardiac-restricted overexpression [myosin heavy chain (MHC)-PPAR] were characterized. Whereas PPARalpha(-/-) mice were protected from the development of diabetes-induced cardiac hypertrophy, the combination of diabetes and the MHC-PPAR genotype resulted in a more severe cardiomyopathic phenotype than either did alone. Cardiomyopathy in diabetic MHC-PPAR mice was accompanied by myocardial long-chain triglyceride accumulation. The cardiomyopathic phenotype was exacerbated in MHC-PPAR mice fed a diet enriched in triglyceride containing long-chain fatty acid, an effect that was reversed by discontinuing the high-fat diet and absent in mice given a medium-chain triglyceride-enriched diet. Reactive oxygen intermediates were identified as candidate mediators of cardiomyopathic effects in MHC-PPAR mice. These results link dysregulation of the PPARalpha gene regulatory pathway to cardiac dysfunction in the diabetic and provide a rationale for serum lipid-lowering strategies in the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
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            Assay for quantitative determination of glutathione and glutathione disulfide levels using enzymatic recycling method.

            The spectrophotometric/microplate reader assay method for glutathione (GSH) involves oxidation of GSH by the sulfhydryl reagent 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) to form the yellow derivative 5'-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB), measurable at 412 nm. The glutathione disulfide (GSSG) formed can be recycled to GSH by glutathione reductase in the presence of NADPH. The assay is composed of two parts: the preparation of cell cytosolic/tissue extracts and the detection of total glutathione (GSH and GSSG). The method is simple, convenient, sensitive and accurate. The lowest detection for GSH and GSSG is 0.103 nM in a 96-well plate. This method is rapid and the whole procedure takes no longer than 15 min including reagent preparation. The method can assay GSH in whole blood, plasma, serum, lung lavage fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, tissues and cell extracts and can be extended for drug discovery/pharmacology and toxicology protocols to study the effects of drugs and toxic compounds on glutathione metabolism.
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              Small molecule activators of the Nrf2-HO-1 antioxidant axis modulate heme metabolism and inflammation in BV2 microglia cells.

              The nuclear factor erythroid derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the antioxidant protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) are crucial components of the cellular stress response. These two systems work together to combat oxidative stress and inflammation and are attractive drug targets for counteracting different pathologies, including neuroinflammation. We aimed to identify the most effective Nrf2/HO-1 activators that modulate the inflammatory response in microglia cells. In the present study, we searched the literature and selected 56 compounds reported to activate Nrf2 or HO-1 and analyzed them for HO-1 induction at 6 and 24h and cytotoxicity in BV2 microglial cells in vitro. Approximately 20 compounds up-regulated HO-1 at the concentrations tested (5-20 μM) with carnosol, supercurcumin, cobalt protoporphyrin-IX and dimethyl fumarate exhibiting the best induction/low cytotoxicity profile. Up-regulation of HO-1 by some compounds resulted in increased cellular bilirubin levels but did not augment the expression of proteins involved in heme synthesis (ALAS 1) or biliverdin reductase. Bilirubin production by HO-1 inducers correlated with their potency in inhibiting nitrite production after challenge with interferon-γ (INF-γ) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The compounds down-regulated the inflammatory response (TNF-α, PGE2 and nitrite) more strongly in cells challenged with INF-γ than LPS, and silencing HO-1 or Nrf2 with shRNA differentially affected the levels of inflammatory markers. These findings indicate that some small activators of Nrf2/HO-1 are effective modulators of microglia inflammation and highlight the chemical scaffolds that can serve for the synthesis of potent new derivatives to counteract neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                14 May 2021
                2021
                : 15
                : 2047-2058
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Citrus Research Institute, Southwest University , Chongqing, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]National Citrus Engineering Research Center , Chongqing, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Guang’an Nongfeng Agricultural Development Co., Ltd , Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Guang’an Zheng Wang Agriculture Co., Ltd , Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
                [5 ]Yuanyang Hongtu Grapefruit Agricultural Technology Development Co., Ltd , Yunnan, People’s Republic of China
                [6 ]Chongqing Institute of Medicinal Plant Cultivation , Chongqing, People’s Republic of China
                [7 ]National Patent Navigation Project (Chongqing) Research and Promotion Center , Chongqing, People’s Republic of China
                [8 ]Bio-Resource Research and Utilization Joint Key Laboratory of Sichuan and Chongqing , Chongqing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Wanchao Zhang Tel +86-13072382527 Email boystory@163.com
                Guijie Li 15# Ganjucun, Xiema, Beibei District, Chongqing, 400712, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-17388209637 Email liguijie@cric.cn
                Article
                304624
                10.2147/DDDT.S304624
                8131012
                © 2021 Wang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 5, References: 42, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Original Research

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