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      Unconscious learning processes: mental integration of verbal and pictorial instructional materials

      review-article

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          Abstract

          This review aims to provide an insight into human learning processes by examining the role of cognitive and emotional unconscious processing in mentally integrating visual and verbal instructional materials. Reviewed literature shows that conscious mental integration does not happen all the time, nor does it necessarily result in optimal learning. Students of all ages and levels of experience cannot always have conscious awareness, control, and the intention to learn or promptly and continually organize perceptual, cognitive, and emotional processes of learning. This review suggests considering the role of unconscious learning processes to enhance the understanding of how students form or activate mental associations between verbal and pictorial information. The understanding would assist in presenting students with spatially-integrated verbal and pictorial instructional materials as a way of facilitating mental integration and improving teaching and learning performance.

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          Most cited references194

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          Controlled and automatic human information processing: I. Detection, search, and attention.

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            Asymmetrical effects of positive and negative events: the mobilization-minimization hypothesis.

            Negative (adverse or threatening) events evoke strong and rapid physiological, cognitive, emotional, and social responses. This mobilization of the organism is followed by physiological, cognitive, and behavioral responses that damp down, minimize, and even erase the impact of that event. This pattern of mobilization-minimization appears to be greater for negative events than for neutral or positive events. Theoretical accounts of this response pattern are reviewed. It is concluded that no single theoretical mechanism can explain the mobilization-minimization pattern, but that a family of integrated process models, encompassing different classes of responses, may account for this pattern of parallel but disparately caused effects.
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              Integration of the cognitive and the psychodynamic unconscious.

              M Epstein (1994)
              Cognitive-experiential self-theory integrates the cognitive and the psychodynamic unconscious by assuming the existence of two parallel, interacting modes of information processing: a rational system and an emotionally driven experiential system. Support for the theory is provided by the convergence of a wide variety of theoretical positions on two similar processing modes; by real-life phenomena--such as conflicts between the heart and the head; the appeal of concrete, imagistic, and narrative representations; superstitious thinking; and the ubiquity of religion throughout recorded history--and by laboratory research, including the prediction of new phenomena in heuristic reasoning.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                seffetu@gmail.com
                hairul@usm.my
                Shah@usm.my
                p-zain@utm.my
                Journal
                Springerplus
                Springerplus
                SpringerPlus
                Springer International Publishing AG (Cham )
                2193-1801
                12 March 2013
                12 March 2013
                2013
                : 2
                : 105
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, 11800 USM Malaysia
                [2 ]Department of Foundation Education and Social Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor Malaysia
                Article
                180
                10.1186/2193-1801-2-105
                3612179
                23556145
                7f8accbc-551c-4551-b5b1-f665d18d3332
                © Kuldas et al.; licensee Springer. 2013

                This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 17 October 2012
                : 8 March 2013
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2013

                Uncategorized
                learning processes,conscious processes,unconscious processes,mental representation,instructional material,working memory,emotion,motivation

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