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      Factors predicting BCG immunization status in northern Nigeria: a behavioral-ecological perspective.

      Journal of child health care : for professionals working with children in the hospital and community
      BCG Vaccine, supply & distribution, Ecology, Family Characteristics, Female, Health Behavior, ethnology, Health Care Surveys, Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice, Health Policy, legislation & jurisprudence, Humans, Immunization Programs, organization & administration, Infant, Logistic Models, Male, Models, Psychological, Nigeria, Parents, education, psychology, Patient Acceptance of Health Care, statistics & numerical data, Prenatal Care, Residence Characteristics, Social Values, Socioeconomic Factors, Vaccination

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          This study examines the predictors of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization status among infants in northern Nigeria using a behavioral-ecological model. The findings show only 37.3 percent of the children had received BCG vaccine, and reveal that BCG immunization status in northern Nigeria is influenced by multiple layers of factors, including child's characteristics, parental or household factors, community characteristics, vaccine supply and the policy environment. At the child's level, place of birth and ownership of an immunization card are the two most significant predictors. The parental and household predictors of BCG immunization status include maternal use of antenatal care, maternal knowledge about immunization, maternal exposure to child health information, social influence and paternal approval of immunization. Both the regularity of vaccine supply to the health facility and the state of residence are associated independently with BCG immunization status. These findings stress the need for interventions at multiple levels in order to increase BCG immunization status.

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