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      Three Children with Triple A Syndrome due to a Mutation (R478X) in the AAAS Gene

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          Abstract

          Objective: To investigate the phenotype and genotype of 3 unrelated children with triple A syndrome from southern Turkey. Methods: The coding sequence of the AAAS gene was sequenced including exon-intron boundaries. Haplotype analysis using markers from AAAS region was performed in order to assess potential founder effects. Results: In all 3 patients, the identical nonsense mutation (R478X) in exon 16 of the AAAS gene was identified. The patients who may be distantly related appeared phenotypically similar with the classical triad of the triple A syndrome (adrenal insufficiency, alacrima and achalasia) with dermatological manifestations while lacking neurological features except for mild mental retardation. Conclusion: The R478X mutation tends to result in a rather severe phenotype although genotype-phenotype relationships cannot be drawn due to the small number of patients.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Mutant WD-repeat protein in triple-A syndrome.

          Triple-A syndrome (MIM 231550; also known as Allgrove syndrome) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)-resistant adrenal insufficiency, achalasia of the oesophageal cardia and alacrima. Whereas several lines of evidence indicate that triple-A syndrome results from the abnormal development of the autonomic nervous system, late-onset progressive neurological symptoms (including cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy and mild dementia) suggest that the central nervous system may be involved in the disease as well. Using fine-mapping based on linkage disequilibrium in North African inbred families, we identified a short ancestral haplotype on chromosome 12q13 (<1 cM), sequenced a BAC contig encompassing the triple-A minimal region and identified a novel gene (AAAS) encoding a protein of 547 amino acids that is mutant in affected individuals. We found five homozygous truncating mutations in unrelated patients and ascribed the founder effect in North African families to a single splice-donor site mutation that occurred more than 2,400 years ago. The predicted product of AAAS, ALADIN (for alacrima-achalasia-adrenal insufficiency neurologic disorder), belongs to the WD-repeat family of regulatory proteins, indicating a new disease mechanism involved in triple-A syndrome. The expression of the gene in both neuroendocrine and cerebral structures points to a role in the normal development of the peripheral and central nervous systems.
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            The nuclear pore complex protein ALADIN is mislocalized in triple A syndrome.

            Triple A syndrome is a human autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an unusual array of tissue-specific defects. Triple A syndrome arises from mutations in a WD-repeat protein of unknown function called ALADIN (also termed Adracalin or AAAS). We showed previously that ALADIN localizes to nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), large multiprotein assemblies that are the sole sites of nucleocytoplasmic transport. Here, we present evidence indicating that NPC targeting is essential for the function of ALADIN. Characterization of mutant ALADIN proteins from triple A patients revealed a striking effect of these mutations on NPC targeting. A variety of disease-associated missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations failed to localize to NPCs and were found predominantly in the cytoplasm. Microscopic analysis of cells from a triple A patient revealed no morphological abnormalities of the nuclei, nuclear envelopes, or NPCs. Importantly, these findings indicate that defects in NPC function, rather than structure, give rise to triple A syndrome. We propose that ALADIN plays a cell type-specific role in regulating nucleocytoplasmic transport and that this function is essential for the proper maintenance andor development of certain tissues. Our findings provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis of triple A syndrome and may lead to unique insights into the role of nucleocytoplasmic transport in adrenal function and neurodevelopment.
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              Clinical and Novel Molecular Findings in a 6.8-Year-Old Turkish Boy with Triple A Syndrome

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2004
                March 2004
                02 March 2004
                : 61
                : 1
                : 3-6
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Çukurova University, Faculty of Medicine, Adana, Turkey; bChildren’s Hospital, Technical University Dresden, Dresden, Germany
                Article
                75190 Horm Res 2004;61:3–6
                10.1159/000075190
                14646395
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 13, Pages: 4
                Categories
                Original Paper

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