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      A Facile and General Method for the Encapsulation of Different Types of Imaging Contrast Agents Within Micrometer-Sized Polymer Beads

      , , , , , ,

      Advanced Functional Materials

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="P3">Polystyrene (PS) hollow beads with holes on the surfaces are employed as containers for quick loading and encapsulation of a variety of contrast enhancement agents: saline solutions for thermoacoustic tomography, iodinated organic compounds for micro-computed tomography, and perfluorooctane for magnetic resonance. Because of the hole on the surface of the PS hollow bead, the contrast agent to be encapsulated could quickly enter the hollow interior via direct flow rather than slow diffusion through the wall. After loading, the hole on the surface is conveniently sealed by annealing the sample at a temperature (e.g., 95 °C) slightly above the glass-transition temperature of PS. In vitro methods are also used to investigate the effectiveness of encapsulation by quantifying the contrast enhancement enabled by the contrast agents. </p>

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          Most cited references 27

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          Autonomic healing of polymer composites.

          Structural polymers are susceptible to damage in the form of cracks, which form deep within the structure where detection is difficult and repair is almost impossible. Cracking leads to mechanical degradation of fibre-reinforced polymer composites; in microelectronic polymeric components it can also lead to electrical failure. Microcracking induced by thermal and mechanical fatigue is also a long-standing problem in polymer adhesives. Regardless of the application, once cracks have formed within polymeric materials, the integrity of the structure is significantly compromised. Experiments exploring the concept of self-repair have been previously reported, but the only successful crack-healing methods that have been reported so far require some form of manual intervention. Here we report a structural polymeric material with the ability to autonomically heal cracks. The material incorporates a microencapsulated healing agent that is released upon crack intrusion. Polymerization of the healing agent is then triggered by contact with an embedded catalyst, bonding the crack faces. Our fracture experiments yield as much as 75% recovery in toughness, and we expect that our approach will be applicable to other brittle materials systems (including ceramics and glasses).
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            Mediating tumor targeting efficiency of nanoparticles through design.

            Here we systematically examined the effect of nanoparticle size (10-100 nm) and surface chemistry (i.e., poly(ethylene glycol)) on passive targeting of tumors in vivo. We found that the physical and chemical properties of the nanoparticles influenced their pharmacokinetic behavior, which ultimately determined their tumor accumulation capacity. Interestingly, the permeation of nanoparticles within the tumor is highly dependent on the overall size of the nanoparticle, where larger nanoparticles appear to stay near the vasculature while smaller nanoparticles rapidly diffuse throughout the tumor matrix. Our results provide design parameters for engineering nanoparticles for optimized tumor targeting of contrast agents and therapeutics.
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              Microbubbles in medical imaging: current applications and future directions.

               R. Lindner (2004)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Advanced Functional Materials
                Adv. Funct. Mater.
                Wiley-Blackwell
                1616301X
                February 22 2012
                February 22 2012
                : 22
                : 4
                : 764-770
                Article
                10.1002/adfm.201102582
                6924621
                31866803
                © 2012
                Product

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