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      Late Dietary Intervention Limits Benefits of Soy Protein or Flax Oil in Experimental Polycystic Kidney Disease

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          Background/Aims: Dietary soy protein and flax oil retard kidney disease progression when initiated in the early stages of disease in several experimental models, including the Han:SPRD- cy rat. However, individuals with kidney disease often do not become aware of their condition until injury to the kidney is extensive. The objective of this study was to determine whether initiating these interventions in established disease would alter further progression of renal injury. Methods: Two-month-old adult male Han:SPRD- cy rats were given either a flax oil diet (7% flax oil), a soy protein diet (20% soy protein) or a control diet (7% corn oil, 20% casein) for 4 months. Renal disease progression was assessed by examining morphological, immunohistochemical and biochemical parameters. Results: Compared to controls, there was 21–24% less staining of proliferating cells, 21–24% less oxidative damage and 13–15% less renal inflammation in kidneys from rats given dietary soy protein and flax oil. Renal cystic growth and fibrosis and serum creatinine levels were not altered by these dietary treatments. Conclusions: Late intervention with dietary soy protein and flax oil reduces some disease-associated pathologies in established renal disease in Han:SPRD- cy rats. The potential benefits of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on ultimate renal disease outcome in the long term remains to be determined.

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          Chronic kidney disease awareness, prevalence, and trends among U.S. adults, 1999 to 2000.

          The incidence of kidney failure treatment in the United States increased 57% from 1991 to 2000. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) prevalence was 11% among U.S. adults surveyed in 1988 to 1994. The objective of this study was to estimate awareness of CKD in the U.S. population during 1999 to 2000 and to determine whether the prevalence of CKD in the United States increased compared with 1988 to 1994. Analysis was conducted of nationally representative samples of noninstitutionalized adults, aged 20 yr and older, in two National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted in 1988 to 1994 (n = 15,488) and 1999 to 2000 (n = 4101) for prevalence +/- SE. Awareness of CKD is self-reported. Kidney function (GFR), kidney damage (microalbuminuria or greater), and stages of CKD (GFR and albuminuria) were estimated from calibrated serum creatinine, spot urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR), age, gender, and race. GFR was estimated using the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation. Self-reported awareness of weak or failing kidneys in 1999 to 2000 was strongly associated with decreased kidney function and albuminuria but was low even in the presence of both conditions. Only 24.3 +/- 6.4% of patients at GFR 15 to 59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and albuminuria were aware of CKD compared with 1.1 +/- 0.3% at GFR of 90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) or greater and no microalbuminuria. At moderately decreased kidney function (GFR 30 to 59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), awareness was much lower among women than men (2.9 +/- 1.6 versus 17.9 +/- 5.9%; P = 0.008). The prevalence of moderately or severely decreased kidney function (GFR 15 to 59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) remained stable over the past decade (4.4 +/- 0.3% in 1988 to 1994 and 3.8 +/- 0.4% in 1999 to 2000; P = 0.23). At the same time, the prevalence of albuminuria (ACR >/= 30 mg/g) in single spot urine increased from 8.2 +/- 0.4% to 10.1 +/- 0.7% (P = 0.01). Overall CKD prevalence was similar in both surveys (9% using ACR > 30 mg/g for persistent microalbuminuria; 11% in 1988 to 1994 and 12% in 1999 to 2000 using gender-specific ACR cutoffs). Despite a high prevalence, CKD awareness in the U.S. population is low. In contrast to the dramatic increase in treated kidney failure, overall CKD prevalence in the U.S. population has been relatively stable.
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            Kidney disease as a risk factor for recurrent cardiovascular disease and mortality.

            Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent in the United States and is an independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Few studies have evaluated the effect of CKD on cardiovascular events in a diverse community-based population with underlying CVD. Data for subjects with preexisting CVD were pooled from 4 publicly available, community-based, longitudinal studies: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, Cardiovascular Health Study, Framingham Heart Study, and Framingham Offspring Study. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (<1 mL/s/1.73 m2). The primary study outcome was a composite of myocardial infarction (MI), fatal coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and all-cause mortality. The secondary outcome included only MI and fatal CHD. A total of 4,278 subjects satisfied inclusion criteria, and 759 subjects (17.7%) had CKD. Mean follow-up was 86 months. The primary and secondary outcomes were observed in 1,703 (39.8%) and 857 subjects (20.0%), respectively. Incidence rates for the primary and secondary outcomes were greater in persons with CKD compared with those without CKD (62.5% versus 34.9% and 30.6% versus 17.8%, respectively). Adjusted hazard ratios for the primary and secondary outcomes were 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 1.52) and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.12 to 1.55), respectively. The presence of CKD in a community-based population with preexisting CVD is associated with an increased risk for recurrent CVD outcomes. This increased risk persists after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors.
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              Phyto-oestrogens, their mechanism of action: current evidence for a role in breast and prostate cancer.

              The incidence of hormone-dependent cancers, such as those of the breast and prostate, is much lower in Eastern countries such as China and Japan in comparison with the Western world. Diet is believed to have a major effect on disease risk and one group of compounds, the phyto-oestrogens, which are consumed in large amounts in Asian populations, have been implicated in cancer protection. This view follows the finding that plasma and urinary levels of phyto-oestrogens are much higher in areas where cancer incidence is low in comparison with areas of high cancer incidence. The phyto-oestrogens are comprised of two main groups; the isoflavones and lignans. Of the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein have been the most widely studied. These compounds have been shown to possess anticancer properties; however their precise mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. In comparison, few studies have investigated the effects of lignans in breast and prostate cancer. In vitro studies have shown that genistein exerts biphasic effects on cancer cell growth, stimulating growth at low concentrations ( 10 microm), which suggests that low phyto-oestrogen levels may stimulate cancer growth in vivo. Plasma phyto-oestrogen concentrations of >10 microm cannot be achieved by dietary intake and therefore the timing of exposure to phyto-oestrogens may be of the utmost importance in determining their chemopreventive effects. The present paper reviews the effects of phyto-oestrogens on breast and prostate cancer in vivo and in vitro and discusses possible mechanisms of action via which these compounds may exert their effects.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                July 2007
                29 June 2007
                : 106
                : 4
                : e122-e128
                aDepartments of Human Nutritional Sciences and bPediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba, and cManitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, Man., Canada
                104836 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2007;106:e122–e128
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 28, Pages: 1
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Histology, Advanced chronic kidney disease, Flax oil, Soy protein, Rats


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