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      Effect of Cyclosporine on Reperfusion Injury in Acute Myocardial Infarction

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          Abstract

          Experimental evidence suggests that cyclosporine, which inhibits the opening of mitochondrial permeability-transition pores, attenuates lethal myocardial injury that occurs at the time of reperfusion. In this pilot trial, we sought to determine whether the administration of cyclosporine at the time of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) would limit the size of the infarct during acute myocardial infarction. We randomly assigned 58 patients who presented with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction to receive either an intravenous bolus of 2.5 mg of cyclosporine per kilogram of body weight (cyclosporine group) or normal saline (control group) immediately before undergoing PCI. Infarct size was assessed in all patients by measuring the release of creatine kinase and troponin I and in a subgroup of 27 patients by performing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on day 5 after infarction. The cyclosporine and control groups were similar with respect to ischemia time, the size of the area at risk, and the ejection fraction before PCI. The release of creatine kinase was significantly reduced in the cyclosporine group as compared with the control group (P=0.04). The release of troponin I was not significantly reduced (P=0.15). On day 5, the absolute mass of the area of hyperenhancement (i.e., infarcted tissue) on MRI was significantly reduced in the cyclosporine group as compared with the control group, with a median of 37 g (interquartile range, 21 to 51) versus 46 g (interquartile range, 20 to 65; P=0.04). No adverse effects of cyclosporine administration were detected. In our small, pilot trial, administration of cyclosporine at the time of reperfusion was associated with a smaller infarct by some measures than that seen with placebo. These data are preliminary and require confirmation in a larger clinical trial. 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society

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          Most cited references 30

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          The mitochondrial permeability transition pore and its role in cell death.

           M Crompton (1999)
          This article reviews the involvement of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in necrotic and apoptotic cell death. The pore is formed from a complex of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), the adenine nucleotide translocase and cyclophilin-D (CyP-D) at contact sites between the mitochondrial outer and inner membranes. In vitro, under pseudopathological conditions of oxidative stress, relatively high Ca2+ and low ATP, the complex flickers into an open-pore state allowing free diffusion of low-Mr solutes across the inner membrane. These conditions correspond to those that unfold during tissue ischaemia and reperfusion, suggesting that pore opening may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of necrotic cell death following ischaemia/reperfusion. Evidence that the pore does open during ischaemia/reperfusion is discussed. There are also strong indications that the VDAC-adenine nucleotide translocase-CyP-D complex can recruit a number of other proteins, including Bax, and that the complex is utilized in some capacity during apoptosis. The apoptotic pathway is amplified by the release of apoptogenic proteins from the mitochondrial intermembrane space, including cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor and some procaspases. Current evidence that the pore complex is involved in outer-membrane rupture and release of these proteins during programmed cell death is reviewed, along with indications that transient pore opening may provoke 'accidental' apoptosis.
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            Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Trial, Phase I: A comparison between intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and intravenous streptokinase. Clinical findings through hospital discharge.

            Intravenous administration of 80 mg of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA, 40, 20, and 20 mg in successive hours) and streptokinase (SK, 1.5 million units over 1 hr) was compared in a double-blind, randomized trial in 290 patients with evolving acute myocardial infarction. These patients entered the trial within 7 hr of the onset of symptoms and underwent baseline coronary arteriography before thrombolytic therapy was instituted. Ninety minutes after the start of thrombolytic therapy, occluded infarct-related arteries had opened in 62% of 113 patients in the rt-PA and 31% of 119 patients in the SK group (p less than .001). Twice as many occluded infarct-related arteries opened after rt-PA compared with SK at the time of each of seven angiograms obtained during the first 90 min after commencing thrombolytic therapy. Regardless of the time from onset of symptoms to treatment, more arteries were opened after rt-PA than SK. The reduction in circulating fibrinogen and plasminogen and the increase in circulating fibrin split products at 3 and 24 hr were significantly less in patients treated with rt-PA than in those treated with SK (p less than .001). The occurrence of bleeding events, administration of blood transfusions, and reocclusion of the infarct-related artery was comparable in the two groups. Thus, in patients with acute myocardial infarction, rt-PA elicited reperfusion in twice as many occluded infarct-related arteries as compared with SK at each of seven serial observations during the first 90 min after onset of treatment.
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              Changes in collateral channel filling immediately after controlled coronary artery occlusion by an angioplasty balloon in human subjects.

              Transluminal coronary angioplasty can serve as a model for controlled coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion which enables assessment of short-term changes in collateral vessel filling in patients with severe atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. In 16 patients with isolated left anterior descending or right coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 75% stenosis) and normal left ventricular function, collateral filling to the artery being dilated was visualized by contrast injection into the contralateral artery using a second arterial catheter. During balloon inflation, contralateral dye injection was performed as soon as the patient developed angina or ST-T changes or at 90 seconds in those patients without symptoms or signs of ischemia. Grades of collateral filling from the contralateral vessel were: 0 = none; 1 = filling of side branches of the artery to be dilated via collateral channels without visualization of the epicardial segment; 2 = partial filling of the epicardial segment via collateral channels; 3 = complete filling of the epicardial segment of the artery being dilated via collateral channels. At baseline angiography, nine patients had grade 0 collateral filling, seven had grade 1 and none had grade 2 or 3. During coronary occlusion by balloon inflation, collateral filling improved by one grade in eight patients, two grades in five patients, three grades in two patients and remained the same in one patient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                July 31 2008
                July 31 2008
                : 359
                : 5
                : 473-481
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMoa071142
                18669426
                7f9f1e9a-3df9-424c-b544-ced528b57d6e
                © 2008
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