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      The distinct roles of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in acute DSS colitis

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          Abstract

          Expression of gelatinases A and B, also referred to matrixmetalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9, respectively, is increased in inflamed tissues of experimental intestinal inflammation and humans with inflammatory bowel disease (IBDs). Given that we recently reported that treatment with the selective gelatinase inhibitor RO28-2653 ameliorates acute dextrane sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis, we asked whether gelatinase A or B expression is pivotal in mediating large intestinal inflammation. Results from our study reveal that symptoms of acute DSS colitis as well as histopathological colonic changes were ameliorated in MMP-2-, but not MMP-9-deficient mice, and were paralleled by a diminished influx of immune cells. In MMP-2-deficient mice, we observed lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-6 in colonic biopsies and less overgrowth of the colonic lumen by potentially pro-inflammatory enterobacteria from the commensal gut microbiota. We conclude that rather MMP-2 than MMP-9 is causative for the establishment of DSS colitis in mice. The discrepancy of these data to prior reports might be due to substantial differences in the intestinal microbiota composition of the mice bred at different animal facilities impacting susceptibility to inflammatory stimuli. Consequently, a detailed survey of the gut microbiota should be implemented in immunological/inflammatory studies in the future in order to allow comparison of data from different facilities.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Matrix metalloproteinases: biologic activity and clinical implications.

          Tumor progression is a complex, multistage process by which a normal cell undergoes genetic changes that result in phenotypic alterations and the acquisition of the ability to spread and colonize distant sites in the body. Although many factors regulate malignant tumor growth and spread, interactions between a tumor and its surrounding microenvironment result in the production of important protein products that are crucial to each step of tumor progression. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of degradative enzymes with clear links to malignancy. These enzymes are associated with tumor cell invasion of the basement membrane and stroma, blood vessel penetration, and metastasis. They have more recently been implicated in primary and metastatic tumor growth and angiogenesis, and they may even have a role in tumor promotion. This review outlines our current understanding of the MMP family, including the association of particular MMPs with malignant phenotypes and the role of MMPs in specific steps of the metastatic cascade. As scientific understanding of the MMPs has advanced, therapeutic strategies that capitalize on blocking the enzymes have rapidly developed. The preclinical and clinical evolution of the synthetic MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) is also examined, with the discussion encompassing important methodologic issues associated with determining clinical efficacy of MMPIs and other novel therapeutic agents.
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            Gram-negative bacteria aggravate murine small intestinal Th1-type immunopathology following oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

            Oral infection of susceptible mice with Toxoplasma gondii results in Th1-type immunopathology in the ileum. We investigated gut flora changes during ileitis and determined contributions of gut bacteria to intestinal inflammation. Analysis of the intestinal microflora revealed that ileitis was accompanied by increasing bacterial load, decreasing species diversity, and bacterial translocation. Gram-negative bacteria identified as Escherichia coli and Bacteroides/Prevotella spp. accumulated in inflamed ileum at high concentrations. Prophylactic or therapeutic administration of ciprofloxacin and/or metronidazole ameliorated ileal immunopathology and reduced intestinal NO and IFN-gamma levels. Most strikingly, gnotobiotic mice in which cultivable gut bacteria were removed by quintuple antibiotic treatment did not develop ileitis after Toxoplasma gondii infection. A reduction in total numbers of lymphocytes was observed in the lamina propria of specific pathogen-free (SPF), but not gnotobiotic, mice upon development of ileitis. Relative numbers of CD4(+) T cells did not differ in naive vs infected gnotobiotic or SPF mice, but infected SPF mice showed a significant increase in the frequencies of activated CD4(+) T cells compared with gnotobiotic mice. Furthermore, recolonization with total gut flora, E. coli, or Bacteroides/Prevotella spp., but not Lactobacillus johnsonii, induced immunopathology in gnotobiotic mice. Animals recolonized with E. coli and/or total gut flora, but not L. johnsonii, showed elevated ileal NO and/or IFN-gamma levels. In conclusion, Gram-negative bacteria, i.e., E. coli, aggravate pathogen-induced intestinal Th1-type immunopathology. Thus, pathogen-induced acute ileitis may prove useful to study bacteria-host interactions in small intestinal inflammation and to test novel therapies based on modulation of gut flora.
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              Matrix Metalloproteinases: A Review

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                1886
                122234
                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                EuJMI
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                1 December 2011
                : 1
                : 4
                : 302-310
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Charité — University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                [ 2 ] Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany
                [ 3 ] Department of Pathology/Research Center ImmunoSciences (RCIS), Charité — University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                [ 4 ] Department of Internal Medicine, Charité — University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                [ 5 ] CC5, Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Charité — University Medicine Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 27, D-12203, Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ] +49-30-8445-3739, +49-30-450-524-902, markus.heimesaat@ 123456charite.de
                Article
                6
                10.1556/EuJMI.1.2011.4.6
                3918133
                24516737

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