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      Seed-bank dynamics of native and invasive Impatiens species during a five-year field experiment under various environmental conditions

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      NeoBiota

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Despite recent evidence on the important role of seed banks associated with plant invasions, and a large body of literature on invasive annual Impatiens species, little is known about the seed bank characteristics of Impatiens species. To bridge this gap, we conducted a five-year field experiment where we buried seeds of two invasive species ( I. glandulifera and I. parviflora) and one native species ( I. noli-tangere) across four localities in the Czech Republic, harbouring all three Impatiens species and differing in the environmental conditions. We found that the three Impatiens species differed in the characteristics of their seed banks. Both invasive species had a high seed germination rate of almost 100% in the first year after seed burial, while <50% of seeds of the native I. noli-tangere germinated during this year. In I. parviflora all seeds germinated in the first year after seed burial and later decomposed, i.e. the species had a transient seed bank. For I. glandulifera, the most invasive species, the survival of seeds differed among localities. At the first and second localities, the seeds decomposed in the first year after seed burial; in the third locality the seeds germinated in the second year; and in the fourth one, the seeds still germinated in the fourth year. The native I. noli-tangere formed a short-term persistent seed bank across all localities. Germinating or dormant seeds were found in the third year after burial in all localities, and in one locality the seeds persisted until the fifth year. The germination and dormancy in I. noli-tangere were constrained by low minimum temperatures during winter. In addition, germination was highest at intermediate soil moisture, and the most dormant seeds were recorded in soils with intermediate nitrogen concentration. The germination of I. glandulifera was slightly limited by low soil nitrogen. However, no such effect was found in I. parviflora. We suggest that in the invasive Impatiens species seed resistance to environmental factors and high germination at least partly explain their wide distribution.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Predicting global change impacts on plant species’ distributions: Future challenges

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            Maternal Effects in Plants

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              Maternal effects provide phenotypic adaptation to local environmental conditions.

              In outcrossing plants, seed dispersal distance is often less than pollen movement. If the scale of environmental heterogeneity within a population is greater than typical seed dispersal distances but less than pollen movement, an individual's environment will be similar to that of its mother but not necessarily its father. Under these conditions, environmental maternal effects may evolve as a source of adaptive plasticity between generations, enhancing offspring fitness in the environment that they are likely to experience. This idea is illustrated using Campanula americana, an herb that grows in understory and light-gap habitats. Estimates of seed dispersal suggest that offspring typically experience the same light environment as their mother. In a field experiment testing the effect of open vs understory maternal light environments, maternal light directly influenced offspring germination rate and season, and indirectly affected germination season by altering maternal flowering time. Results to date indicate that these maternal effects are adaptive; further experimental tests are ongoing. Evaluating maternal environmental effects in an ecological context demonstrates that they may provide phenotypic adaptation to local environmental conditions. Copyright New Phytologist (2005).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NeoBiota
                NB
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2488
                1619-0033
                September 26 2019
                September 26 2019
                : 50
                : 75-95
                Article
                10.3897/neobiota.50.34827
                © 2019

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