184 cases of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis were investigated and six of these were associated with a peculiar, uncommon pneumonia, and another one had a lethal course. The clinicoradiological and especially pathological data summarized in this study attempt to demonstrate the individuality of this type of pneumonia. Pneumonia associated with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis is similar or identical to rheumatic pneumonia. In both entities, pneumonia and pulmonary edema may and do coexist, and the differentiation of pneumonia from congestive heart failure is difficult and often impossible without pathological evidence. The most attractive pathogenic interpretation is the hypothesis of an immune mechanism in the induction of pneumonia. Authors attributed the lung changes, consecutive to a vascular damage, to a hypersensitivity phenomenon, with accumulation of fibrinogen in alveoli where it is converted to fibrin. Then, the hyaline membrane lining the alveoli, an important feature of pneumonia associated with glomerulonephritis is built up. It is, however, plausible that the effect of the immune reaction is associated with those of hydrosaline retention, arterial hypertension and congestive heart failure. Analogous to rheumatic pneumonia, the "peculiar pneumonia" associated with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis should be named nephritic pneumonia.